G686 ἄρα
dus, immers, natuurlijk, dan, nu, voorts
Taal: Grieks


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Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

ἄρα, illative particle, expressing a more subjective or informal inference than οὖν, then: prop. (as in cl.), the second word in the sentence, Ro 7:21 8:1, Ga 3:7; ἐπεὶ ἄρα, I Co 7:14 (with another word between) 5:10; as the first word, Lk 11:48, Ac 11:18, Ro 10:17, I Co 15:18, II Co 5:15 7:12, He 4:9; so prop. in apodosis after protasis with εἰ, Mt 12:28, Lk 11:20, Ga 2:21 3:29 5:11, He 12:8 (κενὸν ἄρα), I Co 15:14; often in interrogations, direct and indirect, τίς (τί) ἄρα, Mt 18:1 19:25, 27 24:45, Mk 4:41, Lk 1:66 8:25 12:42 22:23, Ac 12:18; εἰ ἄρα, Mk 11:13, Ac 8:22; εἴπερ ἄρα, I Co 15:15; οὐκ ἄρα, Ac 21:38; μήτι ἄρα, II Co 1:17; in strengthened forms, ἄρα γε, ἄραγε, Mt 7:20 17:26, Ac 17:27, and more freq. ἄρα οὖν (Epp. Paul.), so then, Ro 5:18 7:3, 25 8:12 9:16, 18 14:12, 19, Ga 6:10, Eph 2:19, I Th 5:6, II Th 2:15 (Bl., § 77, 2; 78, 5; MM, s.v.).†

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

  Epic dialect ῥά (which is enclitic and used after monosyllables, ἦ, ὅς, γάρ, etc., or words ending in a vowel or diphthong, e.g. ἐπεί), before a consonant ἄρ (perhaps cf. Lithuanian i rtilde 'and'): expressing consequence, then, or mere succession, there and then, and in many derived uses.
__A EARLIER USAGE: to denote,
__A.I immediate transition, there and then, straightway, ὣς φάτο βῆ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ Ὄνειρος Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.16 : after a participle, ὣς εἰπὼν κατ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἕζετο 1.68, al.; πυθόμενος.. εἶπε ἄ. Herodotus Historicus 4.134, compare 9.9; ἐρωτώσης τῆς μητρὸς ἀπεκρίνατο ἄρα Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.3.2; with other Particles, δέ, ἦ, ὡς, etc., compare ὁ δὲ Ἀστυάγης ἄ. εἶπεν prev. work 4.10: also after Advbs. of Time, τότε δή ῥα, τῆμος ἄρα, etc. ; οὕτως ἄρα Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 259b ; often in apodosi, as αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ θηήσατο.. αὐτίκ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἤλυθεν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 5.77; repeated τὼ μὲν ἄρ᾽.. κεῖντο ἡ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽.. ἀγόρευε Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 21.426 : in enumerations, e. g. in Homer's catalogue, then, next, οἱ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ Ἀθήνας εἶχον 2.546 ; so in genealogies, Σίσυφος.. ὁ δ᾽ ἄ. Γλαῦκον τέκεθ᾽ υἱόν 6.154.
__A.I.2 to draw attention, mark you! τὸν τρεῖς μὲν ἐπιρρήσσεσκον.. τῶν ἄλλων Ἀχιλεὺς δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐπιρρήσσεσκε καὶ οἶος 24.456; with imper., ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε δὴ κατ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἕζευ 24.522 : to point a moral or general statement, φευγόντων δ᾽ οὔτ᾽ ἂρ κλέος ὄρνυται οὔτε τις ἀλκή 5.532.
__A.II connexion, such as,
__A.II.1 that of antecedent and consequent, οἰνοχόει.. ἄσβεστος δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐνῶρτο γέλως 1.599, compare 24.507; τοὔνεκ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἄλγε᾽ ἔδωκε 1.96; frequently with οὕνεκα in protasi, 7.140, al. : also in questions, τίς τ᾽ ἄρ τῶν ὄχ᾽ ἄριστος ἔη; who then (say you) was.. ? 2.761: with _demonstrative_ Pronoun in recapitulation, ἀλλ᾽ υἱὸν Πριάμοιο.. τόν ῥ᾽ Ὀδυσεὺς βάλε he it was, whom.., 4.501: frequently in such phrases as ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας 2.35, al.; ὣς ἄρ᾽ ἔφη 1.584, al.; ἦ ῥα 3.355, al. , thus, then he spoke.—This usage is universal in Greek.
__A.II.2 explanation of that which precedes, χωόμενον κατὰ θυμὸν ἐϋζώνοιο γυναικὸς τήν ῥα.. ἀπηύρων whom (and for this cause he was angry) they had taken away, 1.429 ; εἰ μὴ ὑπερφίαλον ἔπος ἔκβαλε.. φῆ ῥ᾽ ἀέκητι θεῶν φυγέειν for he said, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.504: frequently with οὕνεκα ; so with relatives, ἐκ δ᾽ ἔθορε κλῆρος ὃν ἄρ᾽ ἤθελον αὐτοί the very one which.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.182.
__B LATER USAGE, always with inferential force: 1. in drawing conclusions (more subjective than οὖν), ἄριστον ἄ. ἡ εὐδαιμονία Aristoteles Philosophus “Ethica Nicomachea” 1099a24; δῆλον ἄ. prev. author “Pol.” 1295b33; in pseudo-syllogistic conclusions, prev. author “SE” 174b11, “Rh.” 1401a3, al. : especially by way of informal inference, as it seems, οὐκ ἄ. σοί γε πατὴρ ἦν Πηλεύς Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 16.33; οὐδ᾽ ἄ. πως ἦν ἐν πάντεσσ᾽ ἔργοισι δαήμονα φῶτα γενέσθαι 23.670; μάτην ἄρ᾽, ὡς ἔοικεν, ἥκομεν Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 772 ; οὕτω κοινόν τι ἄ. χαρᾷ καὶ λύπῃ δάκρυά ἐστιν so true is it that.., Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 7.1.32; πολὺ γὰρ ἀμείνων ἄ. ὁ τοῦ ἀδίκου ἢ ὁ τοῦ δικαίου βίος Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 358c; ἦν ἄ. πυρός γ᾽ ἕτερα.. θερμότερα Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 382; ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ᾽ ἦσθα “Tragica Adespota” 374 ; so in announcing the discovery or correction of an error, as οὐκ ἐννενοήκαμεν ὅτι εἰσὶν ἄ... Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 375d; φαίνεται πρὸ ποδῶν ἡμῖν κυλινδεῖσθαι καὶ οὐχ ἑωρῶμεν ἄρ᾽ αὐτό prev. work 432d ; εἰκότως ἄ. οὐκ ἐγίγνετο· ὡς γὰρ ἐγὼ νῦν πυνθάνομαι.. Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 2.2.3.
__B.2 in questions, expressing the anxiety of the questioner, τίς ἄ. ῥύσετα; who is there to save ? Aeschylus Tragicus “Septem contra Thebas” 92 ; so in exclamations to heighten the expression of emotion, οἵαν ἄρ᾽ ἥβην.. ἀπώλεσεν what a band of youth was that.. ! prev. author “Pers.” 733 ; so ὡς ἄρα prev. work 472, Sophocles Tragicus “Fragmenta” 577; τί μ᾽ ἄ. τί μ᾽ ὀλέκει; prev. author “Ant.” 1285; τί οὖν.. ἄ. Xenophon Historicus “Oeconomicus” 6.2 ; πῶς ἄ.; οὕτως ἄ., etc.; ἄ. alone, ἔζης ἄ. Sophocles Tragicus “Fragmenta” 686 : especially in ironical comments, Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 476, 1371, etc.
__B.3 epexegetic, namely, ἐρῶ, ὡς ἄ... Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 152d, compare 156e.
__B.4 for τοι ἄρα, τἄρα, see entry τοι 11.2.
__B.5 εἰ (or ἐάν) μὴ ἄ. unless perhaps, Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 38b, Demosthenes Orator 58.4 ; separated from εἰ μή, prev. author 9.20; with irony, εἰ μὴ ἄ. ἡ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐπιμέλεια διαφθορά ἐστιν Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.2.8.
__B.6 in hypothetical clauses, to indicate the improbability of the supposition, ἢν ἄ. ποτὲ κατὰ γῆν βιασθῶσιν Thucydides Historicus 1.93, etc. ; or simply, perhaps (sometimes separated from εἰ), εἴ τις οὖν ὑμῶν ἄ... ὑπελάμβανεν Demosthenes Orator 21.8; εἴ τις ἰδίᾳ τινὰ δεδιὼς ἄ. ἀπρόθυμός ἐστιν Thucydides Historicus 4.86.
__C IN CRASIS, frequently τἄρα, μεντἄρα, οὐτἄρα: also δήξομἄρα for δήξομαι ἄ., Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 325 ; οἰμώξετἄρα, κλαύσἄρα, prev. author “Th.” 248, “Pax” 532: also in Trag., Euripides Tragicus “Hyps.fragment” 34.86.
__D ἄρα never stands first in the sentence in Classical Greek (Aristoteles Philosophus “Mechanica” 851a22 is corrupt) , but is found at the beginning of an apodosis in NT.Matt.12.28, NT.Rom.10.17 , and first in a sentence, NT.Luke.11.48, Vettius Valens Astrologus 305.20; in conclusion of syllogism, Hermes Trismegistus cited in Stobaeus, Joannes 3.11.31.

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks αἴρω G142 "opheffen, optillen"; Grieks ἆρα G687 "vragend voorvoegsel"; Grieks γέ G1065 "inderdaad, zeker, tenminste, zelfs, aangezien"; Grieks εἰ G1487 "indien, of"; Grieks οὖν G3767 "dus, nu, dan, eens, immers, welnu dan";



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