G1121 γράμμα
letter, document, verslag
Taal: Grieks


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Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

γράμμα, -τος, τό (< γράφω), [in LXX for סֵפֶר H5612, etc. ;] 1. that which is traced or drawn, a picture. 2. that which is written (1) a character, letter: Ga 6:11; (2) a writing, a written document (a) a bill or account: Lk 16:6, 7; (b) a letter: Ac 28:21; (c) τὰ ἱερὰ γ., the sacred writings, i.e. the OT: II Ti 3:15 (so in Philo, Vit. Mos., iii, 39) ; (d) τὸ γ., the letter, the written word as an external authority in contrast with the direct influence of the Spirit as manifested in the new Covenant: Ro 2:27, 29 7:6, II Co 3:6, 7; (3) τὰ γ., letters, i.e. learning: Jo 7:15, Ac 26:24. (In π. an illiterate person is very frequently referred to as γράμματα μὴ εἰδότης, and this "never means anything else than inability to write": MM, Exp., x; but v. also Cremer, 166; DCG, i, 202; ii, 584.) †

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

γράμμα, ατος, τό,
  Doric dialect γράθμα, probably in “IG” 4.506 (Heraeum, 6th-5th c.BC),compare “Anecdota Graeca - MSS. Bibl. Oxon.” 1.102 , but γράσσμα, “IG” 4.554 (Argos, 5th c.BC) : late Aeolic dialect plural γρόππατα, “epigram Gr.” 990.11 (from Balbilla) : (γράφω):— that which is drawn: plural, lines of a drawing, picture, etc., Euripides Tragicus “Ion” 1146 (of tapestry), Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 15.81 ; picture, Ἀπέλλεω γ. Herodas Mimographus 4.73, compare “Anthologia Graeca” 6.352 (from Erinna) : singular, drawing, picture, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 472d, “Cra.” 430e, compare 431c : plural, figures in a picture, Procopius Gazaeus Rhetor “ἔκφρασις ὡρολογίου” p.157B.
__II written character, letter, Herodotus Historicus 1.139, 148, etc. : in plural, letters, characters, γραμμάτων τε συνθέσεις Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 460; πηλίκοις γ. NT.Gal.6.11 ; the letters, the alphabet, Herodotus Historicus 5.58; τὰ γ. καὶ τὰς συλλαβάς Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 390e; γ. Φοινίκια Sophocles Tragicus “Fragmenta” 514 ; Ἀσσύρια, Ἑλληνικά, Herodotus Historicus 4.87; γράμματα ἐπίστασθαι Plato Philosophus “Leges” 689d ; μαθεῖν to have learnt to read, prev. author “Prt.” 325e; γ. μὴ εἰδέναι “SIG” 2844.6 ; ἐδίδασκες γράμματα, ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἐφοίτων you kept school—I went there, Demosthenes Orator 18.265; ἤτοι τέθνηκεν ἢ διδάσκει γ. “Comica Adespota” 20; παιδεύειν γράμματα Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1337b24 ; τέχνη ἡμῶν γ. our profession is that of the scribe, PTeb. 316.16 (1st c.AD).
__II.b articulate sound, letter, Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 18c; τὰ γ. πάθη ἐστὶ τῆς φωνῆς Aristoteles Philosophus “Problemata” 895a12 ; γράμματα φθέγγεσθαι prev. work 8, compare “PA” 660a5.
__II.c παρὰ γράμμα λέγοντα.. σκοπεῖν etymologically, prev. author “MM” 1185b39 ; τὰ παρὰ γ. σκώμματα puns, prev. author “Rh.” 1412a28 ; but ἀρετὴν παρὰ γ. διώκοντες, with reference to Νικαρέτη, the mistress of Stilpo, Crates Thebanus Poeta Philosophus 1.
__II.d inscription, τὸ Δελφικὸν γ. Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 229e, compare “Chrm.” 164d, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 4.2.24, etc., “IG” 2.2876, al.: proverbial, εἰς πέλαγος.. γράμματα γράψαι “epigram Gr.” 1038.8 (from Attalia).
__II.2 in plural, notes in music, “Anthologia Graeca” 11.78 (Lucillius Epigrammaticus).
__II.3 mathematical diagram, epigram cited in 3rd c.AD(?): Diogenes Laertius 8.12.
__II.4 letter inscribed on the lots which the δικασταί drew, Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 277, al., Aristoteles Philosophus “Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία” 64.4 ; practically, = division of dicasts, ἐν ὁποίῳ γ. δειπνεῖ Aristophanes Comicus “Ecclesiazusae” 683 ; ἁ κατὰ γράμμα φυλακά the roster of guards, “SIG” 569.21 (Cos, 3rd c.BC).
__II.4.b quarters of a town, “PRein.” 49.2 ; accent, EM 240.42, 1Zonaras Legal icographus
__II.5 a small weight, 1/24 ounce, scruple, Andromachus Poeta Medicus cited in Galenus Medicus 13.114, “Geoponica” 7.13.2, “PLips.” 62 ii 27 (4th c.AD).
__III in plural, set of written characters, piece of writing, Herodotus Historicus 1.124 : hence, letter, prev. author 5.14, “IG” 22.103.8, etc.; γραμμάτων πτυχαί Sophocles Tragicus “Fragmenta” 144, compare Euripides Tragicus “Iphigenia Taurica” 594, al., Plato Philosophus “Epistulae” 347c ; inscription, epitaph, etc., ἐκόλαψε ἐς τὸν τάφον γράμματα λέγοντα τάδε Herodotus Historicus 1.187, compare 4.91, Andocides Orator 3.12, Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 18.47, “IG” 3.751.
__III.2 papers, documents, Antipho Orator 1.30, Demosthenes Orator 36.21, etc. (sg., Dio Chrysostomus Sophista 65.14) ; τούτων τὰ γ. the documents to prove this, Lysias Orator 32.14; τὰ γ. τῆς δίκης Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 772 ; τὰ δημόσια γ. the public records, Decrees cited in Demosthenes Orator 18.55 ; title-deeds, Dio Cassius Historicus 65.14 ; account of loans, Demosthenes Orator 49.59; ἐπικαρπίαν ἐν γράμμασιν ἀποφέρειν Plato Philosophus “Leges” 955d ; contract or estimate, “BCH” 46.323 (from Teos) ; catalogue, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 7.4.12 : in singular, bond, NT.Luke.16.7 ; note of hand, Josephus Historicus “Antiquitates Judaicae” 18.6.3.
__III.3 a man's writings, i.e. book, treatise, τὰ τοῦ Ζήνωνος γ. Plato Philosophus “Parmenides” 127c (but sg., prev. work 128a) : plural, books, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 4.2.1; Πλάτωνος τὸ περὶ ψυχῆς γ. Callimachus Epicus “Epigrammata” 25, compare “Anthologia Graeca” 9.63 (Asclepiades Epigrammaticus), Galenus Medicus 18(2).928 ; τὰ ἱερὰ γ. the Holy “Scriptures”, “OGI” 56.36 (3rd c.BC), Philo Judaeus 2.574, NT.2Tim.3.15, Josephus Historicus “contra Apionem” 1.10 ; ἱερὰ γ., = Imperial rescripts, Inscriptiones Graecae 12(5).132 (Paros, 3rd c.AD) ; = hieroglyphics, “OGI” 90.54 (Rosetta, 2nd c.BC) : in singular, the “Law” of 2nd c.AD(?): Moses Alchemista, NT.Rom.2.27, al.; opposed to πνεῦμα, prev. work29: sg., article of a treaty, Thucydides Historicus 5.29.
__III.4 laws or rules, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 425b, “Plt.” 292a, al., Aristophanes Comicus “Ecclesiazusae” 1050 ; κατὰ γράμματα ἄρχειν, opposed to ἄνευ γραμμάτων, Plato Philosophus “Politicus” 293a; ἡ κατὰ γ. καὶ νόμους πολιτεία Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1286a15, compare 1272a38: οἱ κατὰ γ. νόμοι, opposed to οἱ κατὰ τὰ ἔθη, prev. work 1287b5, compare Plato Philosophus “Politicus” 299d; κατὰ γράμματα ἰατρεύεσθαι Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1287a34; ἡ ἐκ τῶν γ. θεραπεία prev. work 40.
__IV in plural, also, letters, learning, ἀπείρους γραμμάτων Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 26d, etc.

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