G1487 εἰ
indien, of
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Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

εἰ,
  Attic dialect-Ionic dialect and 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus (for εἰκ, see below 11 ad near the start), = Doric. and Aeol. αἰ, αἰκ (which see), Cypria ἤ “Inscription Cyprian dialect” 135.10 H., both εἰ and αἰ in Epic dialect:— Particle used interjectionally with imperative and to express a wish, but usually either in conditions, if, or in indirect questions, whether. In the former use its regular negative is μ; in the latter, οὐ.
__A INTERJECTIONALLY, in Homerus Epicus , come now! with imperative, εἰ δὲ.. ἄκουσον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.262; εἰ δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ φευγόντων prev. work 46; most frequently with ἄγε (which see), 1.302, al.
__A.2 in wishes, with optative, ἀλλ᾽ εἴ τις.. καλέσειεν 10.111, compare 24.74 ; so later, εἴ μοι ξυνείη μοῖρα Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 863 (Lyric poetry); εἴ μοι γένοιτο φθόγγος ἐν βραχίοσιν Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 836: more frequently followed by γάρ, αἲ γὰρ δὴ οὕτως εἴη Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.189, al.; εἰ γὰρ γενοίμην ἀντὶ σοῦ νεκρός Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 1410; εἰ γὰρ γένοιτο Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 6.1.38; εἰ γὰρ ἐν τούτῳ εἴη Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 310d ; of unattained wishes, in Homerus Epicus only with opt., εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼν.. Διὸς πάϊς αἰγιόχοιο εἴην Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 13.825; Ζεῦ πάτερ, αἰ γὰρ ἐμὸς πόσις εἴη Alcman Lyricus 29 ; later with past tenses of indicative, εἰ γάρ μ᾽ ὑπὸ γῆν.. ἧκεν Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 152 (anap.) ; εἰ γὰρ τοσαύτην δύναμιν εἶχον ὥστε.. Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 1072: twice in Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” with infinitive (compare the use of infinitive in commands), αἰ γὰρ τοῖος ἐὼν.. ἐμὸς γαμβρὸς καλέεσθαι 7.311, compare 24.376.
__A.2.b εἴθε, Epic dialect αἴθε, is frequently used in wishes in the above constructions, εἴθε οἱ αὐτῷ Ζεὺς ἀγαθὸν τελέσειεν 2.33; εἴθ᾽ ὣς ἡβώοιμι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.157; ἰὼ γᾶ, εἴθ᾽ ἔμ᾽ ἐδέξω Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 1537 (Lyric poetry); εἴθε σοι, ὦ Περίκλεις, τότε συνεγενόμην Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.2.46 : later with infinitive, γαίης χθαμαλωτέρη εἴθε.. κεῖσθαι “Anthologia Graeca” 9.284 (1st cCrinagoras Epigrammaticus).
__A.2.c εἰ γάρ, εἴθε are also used with ὤφελον (Epic dialect ὤφελλον), of past unattained wishes, αἴθ᾽ ὤφελλες στρατοῦ ἄλλου σημαίνειν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 14.84 ; εἰ γὰρ ὤφελον κατιδεῖν Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 432c.
__A.2.d followed by a clause expressing a consequence of the fulfilment of the wish, αἰ γὰρ τοῦτο.. ἔπος τετελεσμένον εἴη· τῷ κε τάχα γνοίης.. Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 15.536, compare 17.496, al. ; sometimes hard to distinguish from εἰ in conditions (which may be derived from this use), εἴ μοί τι πίθοιο, τό κεν πολὺ κέρδιον εἴη Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.28.
__B IN CONDITIONS, if:
__B.I with INDIC.,
__B.I.1 with all tenses (for future, see below 2), to state a condition, with nothing implied as to its fulfilment, εἰ δ᾽ οὕτω τοῦτ᾽ ἐστίν, ἐμοὶ μέλλει φίλον εἶναι but if this is so, it will be.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.564 : any form of the Verb may stand in apodosi, εἰ θεοί τι δρῶσιν αἰσχρόν, οὐκ εἰσὶν θεοί Euripides Tragicus “Fragmenta” 292.7; εἰ δοκεῖ, πλέωμεν Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 526; εἰ Φαῖδρον ἀγνοῶ, καὶ ἐμαυτοῦ ἐπιλέλησμαι Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 228a; κάκιστ᾽ ἀπολοίμην, Ξανθίαν εἰ μὴ φιλῶ Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 579, compare Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 17.475; εἰ θεοῦ ἦν, οὐκ ἦν αἰσχροκερδής· εἰ δ᾽ αἰσχροκερδής, οὐκ ἦν θεοῦ Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 408c; εἰ ταῦτα λέγων διαφθείρω τοὺς νέους, ταῦτ᾽ ἂν εἴη βλαβερά prev. author “Ap.” 30b, compare 25b ; εἰ οὗτοι ὀρθῶς ἀπέστησαν, ὑμεῖς ἂν οὐ χρεὼν ἄρχοιτε if these were right in their revolt, (it would follow that) you rule when you have no right, Thucydides Historicus 3.40.
__B.I.1.b to express a general condition, if ever, whenever, sometimes with present, εἴ τις δύο ἢ καὶ πλείους τις ἡμέρας λογίζεται, μάταιός ἐστιν Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 943 : with imperfect, εἴ τίς τι ἠρώτα ἀπεκρίνοντο Thucydides Historicus 7.10 : rarely with aorist, Diodorus Siculus Historicus 31.26.1, Sextus Empiricus Philosophus “Πυρρώνειοι ὑποτυπώσεις” 1.84; compare 111.2.
__B.I.2 with future (much less frequently than ἐάν with subjunctive), either to express a future supposition emphatically, εἰ φθάσομεν τοὺς πολεμίους κατακαίνοντες οὐδεὶς ἡμῶν ἀποθανεῖται Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 7.1.19; εἰ μὴ βοηθήσετε οὐ περιέσται τἀκεῖ Thucydides Historicus 6.91; εἰ αὕτη ἡ πόλις ληφθήσεται, ἔχεται ἡ πᾶσα Σικελία prev. passage; in threats or warnings, εἰ μὴ καθέξεις γλῶσσαν ἔσται σοι κακά Euripides Tragicus “Fragmenta” 5; εἰ τιμωρήσεις Πατρόκλῳ, αὐτὸς ἀποθανῇ Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 28c, compare Demosthenes Orator 28.21: or,
__B.I.2.b to express a present intention or expectation, αἶρε πλῆκτρον εἰ μαχεῖ if you mean to fight, Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 759; ἐγὼ μὲν οὐκ ἀνήρ.. εἰ ταῦτ᾽ ἀνατεὶ τῇδε κείσεται κράτη Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 485, compare Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.61, Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 863.
__B.I.3 with historical tenses, implying that the condition is or was unfulfilled.
__B.I.3.a with imperfect, referring to present time or to continued or repeated action in past time (in Homerus Epicus always the latter, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 24.715, al.): ταῦτα οὐκ ἂν ἐδύναντο ποιεῖν, εἰ μὴ διαίτῃ μετρίᾳ ἐχρῶντο they would not be able to do this (as they do) , if they did not live an abstemious life, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.2.16, compare Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 489b; οὐκ ἂν νήσων ἐκράτει, εἰ μή τι καὶ ναυτικὸν εἶχεν he (from Agamemnon) would not have been master of islands, if he had not had also some naval force, Thucydides Historicus 1.9; αἰ δ᾽ ἦχες ἔσλων ἴμερον ἢ κάλων.. αἴδως κεν.. ἦχεν Sappho Lyrica 28 ; εἰ ἦσαν ἄνδρες ἀγαθοὶ.. οὐκ ἄν ποτε ταῦτα ἔπασχον if they had been good men, they would never have suffered as they did, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 516e, compare Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.1.5 ; εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼ τάδε ᾔδἐ.. οὐκ ἂν ὑπεξέφυγε if I had known this.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 8.366.
__B.I.3.b with aorist referring to past time, εἰ μὴ ἔφυσε θεὸς μέλι.. ἔφασκον γλύσσονα σῦκα πέλεσθαι Xenophanes Poeta Philosophus 38 ; εἰ μὴ ὑμεῖς ἤλθετε, ἐπορευόμεθα ἂν ἐπὶ βασιλέα had you not come, we should be on our way.., Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 2.1.4; καὶ ἴσως ἂν ἀπέθανον, εἰ μὴ ἡ ἀρχὴ διὰ ταχέων κατελύθη Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 32d, compare Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.680, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.364, Demosthenes Orator 4.5, 27.63 : with pluperfect in apodosi, εἰ τριάκοντα μόναι μετέπεσον τῶν ψήφων, ἀπεπεφεύγη ἄν Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 36a.
__B.I.3.c rarely with pluperfect referring to action finished in past or present time, λοιπὸν δ᾽ ἂν ἦν ἡμῖν ἔτι περὶ τῆς πόλεως διαλεχθῆναι, εἰ μὴ προτέρα τῶν ἄλλων τὴν εἰρήνην ἐπεποίητο if she had not (as she has done) made peace before the rest, Isocrates Orator 5.56, compare Plato Philosophus “Timaeus” 21c.
__B.II with SUB Josephus Historicus, εἰ is regularly joined with ἄν (Epic dialect κε, κεν), compare ἐάν: 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus εἰκαν in Tegean Inscrr. of 4th c.BC (“IG” 5(2).3.16, 31, 6.2, “SIG” 306.34) should be understood as εἰκ ἄν (εἰ: εἰκ ={οὐ}: οὐκ), since εἰ δ᾽ ἄν is also found in “IG” 5(2).3.2, 6.45, and εἰκ alone, prev. work3.21 ; but ἄν (κε, κεν) are frequently absent in Homerus Epicus as Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 5.221, 14.373 (and compare below 2), and Lyric poetry, Pindarus Lyricus (who never uses εἰ with ἄν or κε (ν)) “P.” 4.266, al.; in dialects, αἰ δείλητ᾽ ἀγχωρεῖν “IG” 9(1).334.6 (Locr., 5th c.BC) , cf. Foed.Doric dialect cited in Thucydides Historicus 5.79; rarely in Herodotus Historicus, εἰ μὴ ἀναβῇ 2.13 ; occasionally in Trag., Aeschylus Tragicus “Eumenides” 234, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 198 (Lyric poetry), etc. ; very rarely in Attic dialect Prose, εἰ ξυστῶσιν αἱ πόλεις Thucydides Historicus 6.21; εἴ τι που ἄλσος ἢ τέμενος ἀφειμένον ᾖ Plato Philosophus “Leges” 761c : in later Prose, εἴ τις θελήσῃ NT.Rev.11.5; εἰ φονεύῃ Plotinus Philosophus 2.9.9, compare Proclus Philosophus “Inst.” 26.
__B.II.1 when the apodosis is future, to express a future condition more distinctly and vividly than εἰ with optative, but less so than εἰ with future indicative (above 1.2a) ; εἰ δέ κεν ὣς ἕρξῃς καί τοι πείθωνται Ἀχαιοί, γνώσῃ ἔπειθ᾽.. if thou do thus.., thou shalt know, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.364, compare 1.128, 3.281, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 17.549; ἂν δέ τις ἀνθιστῆται, σὺν ὑμῖν πειρασόμεθα χειροῦσθαι Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 7.3.11 ; ἂν μὴ νῦν ἐθέλωμεν ἐκεῖ πολεμεῖν αὐτῷ, ἐνθάδ᾽ ἴσως ἀναγκασθησόμεθα τοῦτο ποιεῖν if we be not now willing, Demosthenes Orator 4.50, compare Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 5.3.27: followed by imper., ἢν εἰρήνης δοκῆτε δεῖσθαι, ἄνευ ὅπλων ἥκετε prev. work 3.2.13, compare 5.4.30.
__B.II.2 when the apodosis is present, denoting customary or repeated action, to express a general condition, if ever, ἤν ποτε δασμὸς ἵκηται, σοὶ τὸ γέρας πολὺ μεῖζον (i.e. ἐστί) whenever a division comes, your prize is (always) greater, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.166 ; ἢν ἐγγὺς ἔλθῃ θάνατος, οὐδεὶς βούλεται θνῄσκειν if death come near, Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 671 ; with ἄν omitted, εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον.. καταπέψῃ ἀλλά.. ἔχει κότον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.81.
__B.II.2.b with Rhet. present in apodosis, ἐὰν μὴ οἱ φιλόσοφοι βασιλεύσωσιν, οὐκ ἔστι κακῶν παῦλα there is (i.e. can be, will be) no rest.., Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 473d.
__B.III with OPTATIVE (never with ἄν in early Gr., later ἐάν with optative, Damascius Philosophus “de Principiis” 114, al.),
__B.III.1 to express a future condition less definitely than ἐάν with subjunctive, usually with optative with ἄν in apodosis, ἦ κεν γηθήσαι Πρίαμος Πριάμοιό τε παῖδες.. εἰ σφῶιν τάδε πάντα πυθοίατο μαρναμένοιιν surely they would exult, if they should hear.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.255, compare 7.28, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.223; εἴης φορητὸς οὐκ ἄν, εἰ πράσσοις καλῶς Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 979; οὐδὲ γὰρ ἄν με ἐπαινοίη, εἰ ἐξελαύνοιμι τοὺς εὐεργέτας Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 7.7.11; οἶκος δ᾽ αὐτός, εἰ φθογγὴν λάβοι, σαφέστατ᾽ ἂν λέξειεν Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 37, etc. : future optative is falsa lectio in Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 164a : with present indicative in apodosis, Xenophanes Poeta Philosophus 34.3, Democritus Epigrammaticus 253 : with future indicative, Melissus Philosophus 5.
__B.III.1.b in Hom.sometimes with present optative, to express an unfulfilled present condition, εἰ μὲν νῦν ἐπὶ ἄλλῳ ἀεθλεύοιμεν, ἦ τ᾽ ἂν ἐγὼ τὰ πρῶτα φεροίμην if we were now contending, etc., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 23.274: rarely in Trag., εἰ μὴ κνίζοι (={εἰ μὴ ἔκνιζε}) Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 568; also εἰ ἀναγκαῖον εἴη ἀδικεῖν ἢ ἀδικεῖσθαι, ἑλοίμην ἂν μᾶλλον ἀδικεῖσθαι Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 469c.
__B.III.2 when the apodosis is past, denoting customary or repeated action, to express a general condition in past time (corresponding to use of subjunctive in present time, above 11.2) ; once in Homerus Epicus, εἴ τίς με.. ἐνίπτοι, ἀλλὰ σὺ τόν γ᾽.. κατέρυκες Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 24.768 ; εἰ δέ τινας θορυβουμένους αἴσθοιτο.., κατασβεννύναι τὴν ταραχὴν ἐπειρᾶτο if he should see (whenever he saw) any troops in confusion, he (always) tried, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 5.3.55, compare “An.” 4.5.13, “Mem.” 4.2.40 ; εἴ τις ἀντείποι, εὐθὺς ἐτεθνήκει if any one made objection, he was a dead man at once, Thucydides Historicus 8.66; ἀλλ᾽ εἴ τι μὴ φέροιμεν, ὤτρυνεν φέρειν Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 755. For εἰ with ind. in this sense see above 1.1 : indicative and optative are found in same sentence, ἐμίσει, οὐκ εἴ τις κακῶς πάσχων ἠμύνετο, ἀλλ᾽ εἴ τις εὐεργετούμενος ἀχάριστος φαίνοιτο Xenophon Historicus “Agesilaus” 11.3.
__B.III.3 in oratio obliqua after past tenses, representing ἐάν with subjunctive or εἰ with a primary (never an historical) tense of the indicative in oratio recta, ἐλογίζοντο ὡς, εἰ μὴ μάχοιντο, ἀποστήσοιντο αἱ πόλεις (representing ἐὰν μὴ μαχώμεθα, ἀποστήσονται) Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 6.4.6, compare Demosthenes Orator 21.104, Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 5.2.2 ; ἔλεγεν ὅτι, εἰ βλαβερὰ πεπραχὼς εἴη, δίκαιος εἴη ζημιοῦσθαι (representing εἰ βλαβερὰ πέπραχε, δίκαιός ἐστι) prev. work 32, compare “An.” 6.6.25 ; εἰ δέ τινα φεύγοντα λήψοιτο, προηγόρευεν ὅτι ὡς πολεμίῳ χρήσοιτο (representing εἴ τινα λήψομαι, χρήσομαι) prev. author “Cyr.” 3.1.3 ; also, where oratio obliqua is implied in the leading clause, οὐκ ἦν τοῦ πολέμου πέρας Φιλίππῳ, εἰ μὴ Θηβαίους.. ἐχθροὺς ποιήσειε τῇ πόλει, i.e. Philip thought there would be no end to the war, unless he should make.. (his thought having been ἐὰν μὴ ποιήσω), Demosthenes Orator 18.145; ἐβούλοντο γὰρ σφίσιν, εἴ τινα λάβοιεν, ὑπάρχειν ἀντὶ τῶν ἔνδον, ἢν ἄρα τύχωσί τινες ἐζωγρημένοι Thucydides Historicus 2.5.
__B.III.4 with optative with ἄν, only when the clause serves as apodosis as well as protasis, compare Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 329b, Demosthenes Orator 4.18, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.5.3 (see. ἄν Aeschylus Tragicus 111. d).
__B.IV with infinitive, in oratio obliqua, only in Herodotus Historicus, εἰ γὰρ δὴ δεῖν πάντως περιθεῖναι ἄλλῳ τέῳ τὴν βασιληΐην, ἔφη δικαιότερον εἶναι κτλ. 1.129; εἰ εἶναι τοῦτο μὴ φίλον 2.64, compare 172, 3.105, 108.
__B.V after Verbs denoting wonder, delight, indignation, disappointment, contentment, and similar emotions, εἰ with indicative is used instead of ὅτι, to express the object of the feeling in a hypothetical form, θαυμάζω εἰ μηδεὶς ὑμῶν μήτ᾽ ἐνθυμεῖται μήτ᾽ ὀργίζεται, ὁρῶν.. I wonder that no one of you is either concerned or angry when he sees.., Demosthenes Orator 4.43; οὐκ ἀγαπᾷ εἰ μὴ δίκην δέδωκεν, ἀλλ᾽ εἰ μὴ καὶ χρυσῷ στεφάνῳ στεφανωθήσεται ἀγανακτεῖ Aeschines Orator 3.147 : after past tenses, ἐθαύμασε δ᾽ εἰ μὴ φανερόν ἐστιν Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.1.13; δεινὸν εἰσῄει, εἰ μὴ.. δόξει Demosthenes Orator 19.33; ἐθαύμαζον εἴ τι ἕξει τις χρήσασθαι τῷ λόγῳ Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 95a; οὐδὲ ᾐσχύνθη εἰ.. ἐπάγει Demosthenes Orator 21.105: in oratio obliqua (expressed or implied) with opt., ἐπεῖπεν ὡς δεινὸν (i.e. εἴη) εἰ.. μεγαλόψυχος γένοιτο Aeschines Orator 2.157; ᾤκτιρον εἰ ἁλώσοιντο Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.4.7 ; ἐθαύμαζε δ᾽ εἴ τις ἀρετὴν ἐπαγγελλόμενος ἀργύριον πράττοιτο he wondered that any one should demand money, prev. author “Mem.” 1.2.7 ; ἔχαιρον ἀγαπῶν εἴ τις ἐάσοι I rejoiced, being content if any one should let it pass, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 450a: —in this use the neg. οὐ is also found, ἀγανακτῶ εἰ ὁ Φίλιππος ἁρπάζων οὐ λυπεῖ Demosthenes Orator 8.55; δεινὸν ἂν εἴη εἰ οἱ ἐκείνων ξύμμαχοι οὐκ ἀπεροῦσιν Thucydides Historicus 1.121; τέρας λέγεις, εἰ οὐκ ἂν δύναιντο λαθεῖν Plato Philosophus “Meno” 91d, etc.
__B.VI in citing a fact as a ground of argument or appeal, as surely as, since, εἴ ποτ᾽ ἔην γε if there was as there was, i.e. as sure as there was such an one, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 3.180, al.; εἰ τότε κοῦρος ἔα, νῦν αὖτέ με γῆρας ὀπάζει 4.321 ; πολλοὺς γὰρ οἶκε εἶναι εὐπετέστερον διαβάλλειν ἢ ἕνα, εἰ Κλεομένεα μὲν μοῦνον οὐκ οἷός τε ἐγένετο διαβαλεῖν, τρεῖς δὲ μυριάδας Ἀθηναίων ἐποίησε τοῦτο it seems easier to deceive many than one, if (as was the fact, i.e. since) he was not able.., Herodotus Historicus 5.97, compare 1.60, al.
__B.VII ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTIONS:
__B.VII.1 with apodosis implied in the context, εἰ having the force of in case, supposing that, πρὸς τὴν πόλιν, εἰ ἐπιβοηθοῖεν, ἐχώρουν they marched towards the city so as to meet the citizens, in case they should rush out, Thucydides Historicus 6.100 ; ἱκέται πρὸς σὲ δεῦρ᾽ ἀφίγμεθα, εἴ τινα πόλιν φράσειας ἡμῖν εὔερον we have come hither to you, in case you should tell us of some fleecy city (i.e. that we might hear of it), Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 120 ; παρέζεο καὶ λαβὲ γούνων, αἴ κέν πως ἐθέλῃσιν ἐπὶ Τρώεσσιν ἀρῆξαι sit by him and grasp his knees so as to persuade him, in case he be willing to help the Trojans, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.408, compare 66, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 1.94, 3.92 ; ἄκουσον καὶ ἐμοῦ, ἐάν σοι ἔτι ταὐτὰ δοκῇ hear me also that you may assent, in case the same opinion please you, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 358b ; ἰδὲ δή, ἐάν σοι ὅπερ ἐμοὶ συνδοκῇ look now, in case you approve what I do, prev. work 434a.
__B.VII.2 with apodosis suppressed for rhetorical reasons, εἴ περ γάρ κ᾽ ἐθέλῃσιν Ὀλύμπιος.. στυφελίξαι if he wish to thrust him away, he will do so, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.580 ; εἰ μὲν δώσουσι γέρας—· εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώωσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι if they shall give me a prize, well and good; but if they give not, then I will take one for myself, 1.135, compare 6.150, Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 468 ; καὶ ἢν μὲν ξυμβῇ ἡ πεῖρα—· εἰ δὲ μή.. and if the attempt succeed, well; otherwise.., Thucydides Historicus 3.3, compare Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 325d.
__B.VII.3 with the Verb of the protasis omitted, chiefly in the following expressions:
__B.VII.3.a εἰ μή except, οὐδὲν ἄλλο σιτέονται, εἰ μὴ ἰχθῦς μοῦνον Herodotus Historicus 1.200 ; μὰ τὼ θεώ, εἰ μὴ Κρίτυλλά γ᾽ εἰμί—nay, if I'm not Critylla! i.e. I am, Aristophanes Comicus “Thesmophoriazusae” 898 ; εἰ μὴ ὅσον except only, ἐγὼ μέν μιν οὐκ εἶδον, εἰ μὴ ὅσον γραφῇ Herodotus Historicus 2.73, compare 1.45, 2.20; εἰ μὴ εἰ Thucydides Historicus 1.17, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 480b, etc. ; εἰ μή τι οὖν, ἀλλὰ σμικρόν γέ μοι τῆς ἀρχῆς χάλασον if nothing else, yet.., prev. author “Men.” 86e; ironical, εἰ μὴ ἄρα ἡ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐπιμέλεια διαφθορά ἐστιν Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.2.8; εἰ μή πέρ γε τὸν ὑοσκύαμον χρήματα εἶναι φήσομεν prev. author “Oec.” 1.13.
__B.VII.3.b εἰ δὲ μή but if not, i.e. otherwise, προηγόρευε τοῖς Λαμψακηνοῖσι μετιέναι Μιλτιάδεα, εἰ δὲ μή, σφέας πίτυος τρόπον ἀπείλεε ἐκτρίψειν Herodotus Historicus 6.37, compare 56 ; after μάλιστα μέν, Thucydides Historicus 1.32, 35, etc.: —after a preceding neg., μὴ τύπτ᾽· εἰ δὲ μή, σαυτόν ποτ᾽ αἰτιάσει don't beat me; otherwise, you will have yourself to blame, Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 1433; ὦ Κῦρε, μὴ οὕτω λέγε· εἰ δὲ μή, οὐ θαρροῦντά με ἕξεις Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 3.1.35; οὔτ᾽ ἐν τῷ ὕδατι τὰ ὅπλα ἦν ἔχειν· εἰ δὲ μή prev. author “An.” 4.3.6, compare Thucydides Historicus 1.28, 131, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 91c.
__B.VII.3.c εἰ δέ sometimes stands for εἰ δὲ μή, εἰ μὲν βούλεται, ἑψέτω· εἰ δ᾽, ὅτι βούλεται, τοῦτο ποιείτω Plato Philosophus “Euthydemus” 285c, compare “Smp.” 212c; εἰ δ᾽ οὖν Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 722; εἰ δ᾽ οὕτως Aristoteles Philosophus “Ethica Nicomachea” 1094a24 ; εἰ δὲ τοῦτο and if so, 1st cStrabo Geographus 2.1.29.
__B.VII.3.d εἰ γάρ for if so, prev. author 7.3.6.
__B.VII.3.e εἴ τις if any, i. e. as much as or more than any, τῶν γε νῦν αἴ τις ἐπιχθονίων, ὀρθῶς Bacchylides Lyricus 5.5; ὄτλον ἄλγιστον ἔσχον, εἴ τις Αἰτωλὶς γυνή Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 8, compare “OC” 734 ; εἴ τις ἄλλος, siquis alius, Euripides Tragicus “Andromache” 6, etc.; εἴ τινες καὶ ἄλλοι Herodotus Historicus 3.2, etc.; εἴπερ τις ἄλλος Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 501d ; also κατ᾽ εἰ δέ τινα τρόπον in any way, “IG” 5(2).6.27 (from Tegea).
__B.VII.3.f εἴ ποτε or εἴπερ ποτέ now if ever, ἡμῖν δὲ καλῶς, εἴπερ ποτέ, ἔχει.. ἡ ξυναλλαγή Thucydides Historicus 4.20, compare Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 594; αἴ ποτα κἄλλοτα Alcaeus Lyricus “Supp.” 7.11, compare Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 6.4.12, etc. ; but in prayers, εἴ ποτέ τοι ἐπὶ νηὸν ἔρεψα.. τόδε μοι κρήηνον ἐέλδωρ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.39.
__B.VII.3.g εἴ ποθεν (i.e. δυνατόν ἐστι) if from any quarter, i.e. from some quarter or other, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 1204 (Lyric poetry) ; so εἴ ποθι somewhere, anywhere, prev. author “Aj.” 885 (Lyric poetry); εἴ που Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.193.
__B.VII.3.h εἴ πως prev. work 388, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 2.3.11 : in an elliptical sentence (cf. VII. 1), πρέσβεις πέμψαντες, εἴ πως πείσειαν Thucydides Historicus 1.58.
__B.VIII with other PARTICLES:
__B.VIII.1 for the distinction between καὶ εἰ (or καὶ ἐάν, or κἄν) even if, and εἰ καί (or ἐὰν καί) even though, see at {καί}:—the opposite of καὶ εἰ is οὐδ᾽ εἰ, not even if; that of εἰ καί is εἰ μηδέ, if (although) not even.
__B.VIII.2 for ὡς εἰ, ὡς εἴ τε, ὥσπερ εἰ, etc., see at {ὡς} and ὥσπερ.
__B.VIII.3 for εἰ ἄρα, see at {ἄρα}; for εἰ δή, εἴπερ, see at {εἰ δή, εἴπερ}; for εἴ γε, see at {γέ}.
__B.IX in negative oaths, = Hebrew im, LXX.Psa.94(95).11, NT.Mark.8.12, al. +NT
__C IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS, whether, followed by the indicative, subjunctive, or optative, according to the principles of oratio obliqua:
__C.1 with IN Demosthenes Orator after primary tenses, representing the same tense in the direct question, σάφα δ᾽ οὐκ οἶδ᾽ εἰ θεός ἐστιν whether he is a god, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.183; εἰ ξυμπονήσεις.. σκόπει Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 41.
__C.2 with SUB Josephus Historicus after primary tenses, representing a dubitative subjunctive in the direct question, τὰ ἐκπώματα οὐκ οἶδ᾽ εἰ Χρυσάντᾳ τουτῳῒ δῶ whether I should give them, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 8.4.16: sometimes elliptical, ἐς τὰ χρηστήρια ἔπεμπε, εἰ στρατεύηται ἐπὶ τοὺς Πέρσας Herodotus Historicus 1.75.
__C.3 OPT. after past tenses, representing either of the two previous constructions in the direct question, ἤρετο εἴ τις ἐμοῦ εἴη σοφώτερος he asked whether any one was wiser than I (direct ἔστι τις σοφώτερο;), Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 21a; ἐπεκηρυκεύετο Πεισιστράτῳ, εἰ βούλοιτό οἱ τὴν θυγατέρα ἔχειν γυναῖκα Herodotus Historicus 1.60: rarely aorist optative for the aorist indicative, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν εἰ ἀναπλεύσειεν I asked him whether he had set sail (direct ἀνέπλευσα;), Demosthenes Orator 50.55: but aorist optative usually represents aorist subjunctive, τὸν θεὸν ἐπήροντο εἰ παραδοῖεν Κορινθίοις τὴν πόλιν.. καὶ τιμωρίαν τινὰ πειρῷντ᾽ ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν ποιεῖσθαι they asked whether they should deliver their city to the Corinthians, and should try.., Thucydides Historicus 1.25: —in both constructions the ind. or subjunctive may be retained, ψῆφον ἐβούλοντο ἐπαγαγεῖν εἰ χρὴ πολεμεῖν prev. work 119 ; ἐβουλεύοντο εἴτε κατακαύσωσιν.. εἴτε τι ἄλλο χρήσωνται whether they should burn them or should dispose of them in some other way, prev. author 2.4 ; ἀνακοινοῦσθαι αὐτὸν αὑτῷ εἰ δῷ ἐπιψηφίσαι τοῖς προέδροις he said that he consulted him whether he should give.., Aeschines Orator 2.68.
__C.4 with OPT. and ἄν when this was the form of the direct question, ἠρώτων εἰ δοῖεν ἂν τούτων τὰ πιστά they asked whether they would give (direct δοιήτε ἄ;), Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 4.8.7.
__C.5 the NEG. used with εἰ in indirect questions is οὐ, when οὐ would be used in the direct question, ἐνετέλλετο.. εἰρωτᾶν εἰ οὔ τι ἐπαισχύνεται whether he is not ashamed, Herodotus Historicus 1.90, etc. ; but if μή would be required in the direct form, it is retained in the indirect, οὐ τοῦτο ἐρωτῶ, ἀλλ᾽ εἰ τοῦ μὲν δικαίου μὴ ἀξιοῖ πλέον ἔχειν μηδὲ βούλεται ὁ δίκαιος, τοῦ δὲ ἀδίκου (the direct question would be μὴ ἀξιοῖ μηδὲ βούλετα; he does not see fit nor wish, does he?) Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 349b :—in double indirect questions, εἴτε.. εἴτε..; εἰ.. εἴτε..; εἴτε.. ἢ.., either οὐ or μή can be used in the second clause, ὅπως ἴδῃς εἴτ᾽ ἔνδον εἴτ᾽ οὐκ ἔνδον Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 7; σκοπῶμεν εἰ ἡμῖν πρέπει ἢ οὔ Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 451d ; εἰ ἀληθὲς ἢ μή, πειράσομαι μαθεῖν prev. work 339a; πολλὰ ἂν περιεσκέψω, εἴτε ἐπιτρεπτέον εἴτε οὔ·.. οὐδένα λόγον οὐδὲ συμβουλὴν ποιῇ, εἴτε χρὴ ἐπιτρέπειν σαυτὸν αὐτῷ εἴτε μή prev. author “Prt.” 313a, 313b; ἀνάγκη τὴν ἐμὴν μητέρα, εἴτε θυγάτηρ ἦν Κίρωνος εἴτε μή, καὶ εἰ παρ᾽ ἐκείνῳ διῃτᾶτο ἢ οὔ, καὶ γάμους εἰ διττοὺς ὑπὲρ ταύτης εἱστίασεν ἢ μὴ.. πάντα ταῦτα εἰδέναι τοὺς οἰκέτας Isaeus Orator 8.9 ; τοὺς νόμους καταμανθάνειν εἰ καλῶς κεῖνται ἢ μή.. τοὺς λόγους εἰ ὀρθῶς ὑμᾶς διδάσκουσιν ἢ οὔ Antipho Orator 5.14.

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks ἄρα G686 "dus, immers, natuurlijk, dan, nu, voorts"; Grieks G5600 ""; Grieks ὡσεί G5616 ""; Grieks ὡσπερεί G5619 "";

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