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Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

εἰμί
   (sum), Aeolic dialect ἔμμι Sappho Lyrica 2.15, Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 20.32 ; Cretan dialect ἠμί “GDI” 4959a ; 2nd pers. singular εἶ, Epic dialect and Ionic dialect εἰς Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 17.388, al., Aeol. ἔσσι , Epic dialect and Doric dialect ἐσσί Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.176, Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 6.90, Sophron Comicus 134; ἐσί “GDI” 4959a ; 3rd.pers. singular ἐστί, Doric dialect ἐντί “IG” 12(1).677 (from Rhodes), Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 1.17, etc. ; 3rd.pers. dual ἐστόν Thucydides Historicus 3.112 ; 1st pers. plural ἐσμέν, Epic dialect and Ionic dialect εἰμέν (also in Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 3.60), ἐμέν Callimachus Epicus “Fragmenta” 294 , Doric dialect εἰμές Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 15.73, but ἠμέν “GDI” 5178.34 ; 3rd.pers. plural εἰσί (-ίν), Epic dialect and Ionic dialect ἔασι (-ιν) Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.73, Xenophanes Poeta Philosophus 8.1, Antimachus Colophonius Elegiacus et Epicus 29, Herodas Mimographus 4.84 , Doric dialect ἐντί Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 1.24, Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 11.45, “IG” 9(1).32.22 (from Phocis), etc.: imper. ἴσθι (ἔσθι Hecataeus Milesius Historicus 361 Josephus Historicus) , Epic dialect and Lyric poetry also in middle form ἔσσο Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.200, Sappho Lyrica 1.28, Macedonius Lyricus “Paean” 31, late Prose ἔσο Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.241d, Marcus Antoninus Imperator 3.5, Heliodorus Scriptor Eroticus 5.12, Porphyrius Tyrius Philosophus “ad Marcellam - Porphyrii Opuscula” 34 ; 3rd.pers. singular ἔστω (ἤτω LXX.Psa.103.31, and late Inscrr., “CIG” “Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum” “Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum” 2664, al.; but in Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 361c to be read ἴτω), Doric. εἴτω, ἤτω, Heraclides Historicus cited in 1Eustathius Episcopus Thessalonicensis 1411.21, Elean ἤστω “Schwyzer” 424 +5th c.BC+; 3rd.pers. plural ἔστωσαν, but ἔστων Homerus Epicus, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 502a, ὄντων prev. author “Lg.” 879b , and early Attic dialect Inscrr., “IG” 12.22, etc. (ἔστωσαν first in 2nd c.BC, prev. work22.1328), Doric. ἐόντων prev. work1126: subjunctive ὦ, ᾖς, ᾖ, Epic dialect ἔω Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 9.18 ; 3rd.pers. singular ἔῃ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 12.300, al. (also ἔῃσι 2.366, al., ᾖσι (ν) 19.202, Hesiodus Epicus “Opera et Dies” 294) , also Boeotian dialect ἔνθω “IG” 7.3172.165, μετείω Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 23.47 and perhaps εἴῃ 9.245, etc. ; Doric dialect 3rd.pers. plural ὦντι “SIG” 940.3 (from Crete), ἔωντι “GDI” 5040.14 (from Hierapytna) , Boeotian dialect ἴωνθι “IG” 7.3171.46 (3rd c.BC): opt. εἴην, -ης (εἴησθα Theognis Elegiacus 715) , -η, also ἔοις, ἔοι, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.284, 142, al., compare Herodotus Historicus 7.6 ; 3rd.pers. plural εἴοισαν Ἀρχ. Ἐφ. 1911.133 (from Gonni) ; 3rd.pers. dual εἴτην Plato Philosophus “Parmenides” 149e, “Sph.” 243e ; 1st pers. plural εἶμεν Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 921 (Lyric poetry), Plato Philosophus ; 2nd pers. plural εἶτε Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 21.195 ; 3rd.pers. plural εἶεν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.372, etc., εἴησαν Herodotus Historicus 1.2, etc. ; Elean ἔα, ={εἴη}, “SIG” 9 (6th c.BC), and σύν-εαν, ={συνεῖεν}, “GDI” 1149 (6th c.BC): infinitive εἶναι, 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus ἦναι “SIG” 306.9 (Tegea, 4th c.BC) ; Epic dialect ἔμμεναι (also Aeolic dialect ἔμμεν᾽ Sappho Lyrica 34), ἔμμεν (also Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 6.42, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 623 (Lyric poetry)), ἔμεναι, ἔμεν, also ἔμειν “SIG” 1166 (from Dodona) ; Doric dialect εἶμεν Foed. cited in Thucydides Historicus 5.77, 79, “IG” 7.1.7 (from Megara), ἦμεν “Test.Epict.” 5.16, “Tab.Heracl.” 1.75, Cretan dialect ἦμεν or ἤμην “Leg.Gort.” 1.15, al., “GDI” 4998i 2, al., Megarian dialect εἴμεναι Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 775, εἴμειν “IG” 12(1).155.100 (from Rhodes), 14.952 (from Agrigentum); εἶν prev. work 12(9).211.10 (from Eretria), “SIG” 135.4 (from Olynthus), etc.: participle ὤν, Epic dialect ἐών, ἐοῦσα, ἐόν, Cypria ἰών “Inscription Cyprian dialect” 135.23 H. ; Boeotian dialect feminine ἰῶσα “IG” 7.3172.116 (Orchom.) , Aeolic dialect and Doric dialect feminine ἔσσα Sappho Lyrica 75.4, “IG” 4.952.2 (Epid.), Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 28.16, ἐοῖσα Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 4.265, ἔασσα “Lyrica Alexandrina Adespota” 9, Diotogenes Philosophus cited in Stobaeus, Joannes 4.7.62, εὖσα Erinna Lyrica 5.5 (also Ionic dialect, Herodas Mimographus 5.16, εὔντων 2.85), ἐᾶσα Timaeus Locrus Philosophus 96d, “IG” 5(1).1470.8 (from Messene), ἴαττα “Leg.Gort.” 8.47; acc. sg. εὖντα Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 2.3 ; nominative singular εἴς in Heraclides Historicus cited in 1Eustathius Episcopus Thessalonicensis 1756.13, pl. ἔντες “Tab.Heracl.” 1.117; dat. pl. ἔντασσι prev. work104; gen. pl. παρ-έντων Alcman Lyricus 64 : imperfect ἦν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.77, etc., Ep. ἔον (also Aeolic dialect, Alcaeus Lyricus 127, Sappho Lyrica “Papyrus fragments” in 1787 “fragment” 3 ii 21), in Attic. ἦ (uncertain in Aeolic dialect, Alcaeus Lyricus “Supp.” 14.9), Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 77, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 61b, etc., but usually altered to ἦν in codices (and ἦν is required by metre in Euripides Tragicus “Ion” 280), contr. from Ep. and Ion. ἦα (Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.808, al., “IG” 12(8).449.2 (from Thasos) , whence Hom.and later Ionic dialect ἔᾱ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.321, al., ἔας Herodotus Historicus 1.187, ἔατε prev. author 4.119) ; Epic dialect 3rd.pers. singular ἦεν, always with ν in Homerus Epicus ; ἔην as 1st pers. singular, only Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.762 (assuming variant, al. ἔον), frequently as 3sg. sg. (generally before a consonant, so that ἔεν is possible), sometimes also ἤην ; 2nd pers. singular ἦσθα, later ἦς (which is variant in Pindarus Lyricus “I.” 1.26), sometimes in LXX (LXX.Judg.11.35, LXX.Ruth.3.2, al.), compare Plato Philosophus “Axiochus” 365e, Erinna Lyrica 4.4, NT.Matt.25.21, al., ἦσθας Menander Comicus “Ἐπιτρέποντες” 156, Ep. ἔησθα; 3rd.pers. singular ἦν, Epic dialect ἔην, ἤην, ἦεν (see. above), Doric dialect and Aeolic dialect ἦς Alcaeus Lyricus “Supp.” 30.1, Epicharmus Comicus 102, Sophron Comicus 59, Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 2.90, “SIG” 241.145 (Delph.) ; 3rd.pers. dual ἤστην Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.10, Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 387, Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 982, Plato Philosophus “Euthydemus” 272a, al. ; Doric dialect 1st pers. plural ἦμες Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Lycurgus” 21 ; 2nd pers. plural ἦτε Plato Philosophus “Euthydemus” 276c, ἦστε Aristophanes Comicus “Pax” 821, “Ec.” 1086 ; 3rd.pers. plural ἦσαν, Ionic dialect and poetical ἔσαν (in Hesiodus Epicus “Theogonia” 321, 825, ἦν is not pl. for ἦσαν , but is rather a peculiarity of syntax, see below see, but is 3rd.pers. plural in Epicharmus Comicus 46, al., “SIG” 560.15 (Epidamnus, 3rd c.BC)) ; Aeolic dialect ἔον “Schwyzer” 644.12; later ἤμην “PSI” 4.362.21 (3rd c.BC), “SIG” 527.46 (Crete, 3rd c.BC), “IGRom.” 4.1740 (from Cyme), always in LXX as LXX.Bar.1.19, cf. NT.Matt.23.30, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.174a, etc., and sometimes in codices of earlier writers, Lysias Orator 7.34, “Tragica Adespota” 124 (cited from Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 931 by Choeroboscus Grammaticus and from prev. author “Tr.” 474 by Aps.), Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 6.1.9, Hyperides Orator “adv. Athenogenem” 26 , 2nd pers. singular ἦσο “epigram Gr.” 379 (from Aezani) , 3rd.pers. singular ἦστο “Supp.epigram” 1.455.7 (from Phrygia) , 1st pers. plural ἤμεθα “PPetr.” 2p.11 (3rd c.BC), LXX.Bar.1.19, LXX.1Ki.25.16, NT.Eph.2.3 ; subjunctive ὦμαι “PBaden” 48.12 (2nd c.BC), ἦται “GDI” , ἦνται probably in “IG” 5(1).1390.83 (from Andania) ; Ionic dialect and Epic dialect also ἔσκον, used by Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 656 (Lyric poetry): future ἔσομαι, ἔσται, Epic dialect and Aeolic dialect also ἔσσομαι, ἔσεται, ἔσσετα; Aeolic dialect 2nd pers. singular ἔσσῃ probably in Alcaeus Lyricus 67, 87; Doric. 2 and 3sg. sg. ἐσσῇ, ἐσσεῖται, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.393, 13.317, Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 10.5, 3sg. pl. ἐσσοῦνται Foed. cited in Thucydides Historicus 5.77 codices (but ἔσσονται “Tab.Heracl.” 1.113) , infinitive ἐσσεῖσθαι Sophron Comicus 57. —All forms of the present indicative are enclitic (except 2nd pers. singular εἶ and 3rd.pers. plural ἔασι); but 3rd.pers. singular is written ἔστι when it begins a sentence or verse, or when it immediately follows οὐκ, καί, εἰ, ὡς, ἀλλά, or τοῦτ᾽, Hdn.Gr. 1.553 (also μή acc. to “Etymologicum Magnum” 301.3) ; later Grammars wrote ἔστι as substantive Verb, Photius Legal icographus, etc., 1Eustathius Episcopus Thessalonicensis 880.22.
__A as the substantive Verb,
__A.I of persons, exist, οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ οὗτος ἀνήρ, οὐδ᾽ ἔσσεται Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 16.437 ; ἔτ᾽ εἰσί they are still in being, 15.433, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 445, etc.; τεθνηῶτος.. μηδ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἐόντος Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 1.289 ; οὐκέτ᾽ ἐστί he is no more, Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 1162 ; οὐδὲ δὴν ἦν he was not long-lived, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 6.131 ; ὁ οὐκ ὤν, οἱ οὐκ ὄντες, of those who are no more, Thucydides Historicus 2.45, 44 ; οἱ ὄντες the living, Polybius Historicus 9.29.2 ; ὁ ὤν the “Eternal”, LXX.Exo.3.14, al., Philo Judaeus 1.289; θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.290 +8th c.BC+; ἐσσόμενοι posterity, 2.119; κἀγὼ γὰρ ἦ ποτ᾽, ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐκ εἴμ᾽ ἔτι Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 284 ; ὡς ἂν εἶεν ἅνθρωποι might continue in being, Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 190c; ζώντων καὶ ὄντων Ἀθηναίων Demosthenes Orator 18.72, compare Aristoteles Philosophus “de Generatione et Corruptione” 318b25 ; of things, εἰ ἔστι ἀληθέως ἡ τράπεζα Herodotus Historicus 3.17, etc. ; of cities, ὄλωλεν, οὐδ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἐστὶ Τροία Euripides Tragicus “Troades” 1292, compare “Heracl.” 491 ; δοκεῖ μοι Καρχηδόνα μὴ εἶναι censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Cat.Ma.” 27 ; ἂν ᾖ τὸ στράτευμα be in existence, Demosthenes Orator 8.17 ; of money, to be in hand, τῶν ὄντων χρημάτων καὶ τῶν προσιόντων “IG” 12.91.25 ; τὰ ὄντα property, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 511a, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Antonius” 24, etc. ; τὸ ἐσόμενον ἐκ.. future revenue from.., “BCH” 46.420 (Olymos, 1st c.BC) ; of place, τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν the local church, NT.Act.13.1 ; of time, τοῦ ὄντος μηνός in the current month, “BGU” 146.4, etc. ; in office, ἱερέων τῶν ὄντων “PPar.” 5.4 (2nd c.BC) ; αἱ οὖσαι ἐξουσίαι the powers that be, Ep. Rom. 13.1.
__A.II of the real world, be, opposed to become, γίγνεται πάντα ἃ δή φαμεν εἶναι Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 152d, etc. ; τὸ ὄν “Being”, Parmenides Poeta Philosophus 8.35, Protagoras Philosophus 2, Plato Philosophus “Timaeus” 27d, etc. ; opposed to τὸ μὴ ὄν, Gorgias Rhetor et Sophista “fragment” 3 Demosthenes Orator, etc.; οὐδὲν γίνεται ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος Epicurus Philosophus “Epistulae” 1p.5U.; ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ἐποίησεν αὐτὰ ὁ θεός LXX.2Mac.7.28 +5th c.BC+; τὰ ὄντα the world of things, 1st c.AD(?): Heraclitus 7, Empedocles Poeta Philosophus 129.5, etc. ; ὄνindeclinable, τῶν ὂν εἰδῶν species of Being, Plotinus Philosophus 6.2.10.
__A.II.2 of circumstances, events, etc., to happen, τά τ᾽ ἐόντα, τά τ᾽ ἐσσόμενα, πρό τ᾽ ἐόντα Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.70; ἡ ἐσβολὴ ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι Thucydides Historicus 2.13, etc. ; τῆς προδοσίας οὔσης since treachery was there, prev. author 4.103 ; ἕως ἂν ὁ πόλεμος ᾖ so long as it last, prev. author 1.58; αἱ σπονδαὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ἔσονται prev. author 4.118 ; τί ἐστι; what is it? what's the matter? Aristophanes Comicus “Thesmophoriazusae” 193 ; τί οὖν ἦν τοῦτ; how came it to pass? Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 58a: repeated with a relat. to avoid a positive assertion, ἔστι δ᾽ ὅπῃ νῦν ἔ. things are as they are, i.e. are ill, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 67.
__A.III be the fact or the case, διπλασίαν ἂν τὴν δύναμιν εἰκάζεσθαι ἤ ἐστιν twice as large as it really is, Thucydides Historicus 1.10 ; αὐτὸ ὅ ἐστι καλόν beauty in its essence, Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 211c, compare “Phd.” 74b ; frequently in participle, τὸν ἐόντα λόγον λέγειν or φαίνειν the true story, Herodotus Historicus 1.95, 116 ; τῷ ἐόντι χρήσασθαι tell the truth, prev. work 30; τὰ ὄντα ἀπαγγέλλειν Thucydides Historicus 7.8 ; σκῆψιν οὐκ οὖσαν, λόγον οὐκ ὄντα, Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 584, Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 1052 ; τῷ ὄντι in reality, in fact, Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 328d, etc. ; to apply a quotation to a case in point, τῷ ὄντι κλαυσίγελως real 'smiles through tears' (with allusion to Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 6.484), Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 7.2.9, compare Plato Philosophus “Laches” 196d ; κατὰ τὸ ἐόν according to the fact, rightly, Herodotus Historicus 1.97 ; πᾶν τὸ ἐόν the whole truth, prev. author 9.11; τοῦ ἐόντος ἀποτεύξεται Hippocrates Medicus “περὶ ἀρχαίης ἰητρικῇς” 2.
__A.IV followed by the relative, οὐκ ἔστιν ὅς or ὅστις no one, οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὃς.. ἀπαλάλκοι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 22.348; οὐκ ἔ. οὐδεὶς ὅς Euripides Tragicus “Electra” 903 ; οὐκ ἔ. ὅτῳ, ={οὐδενί}, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 293 (anap.), compare 989: frequently in pl., εἰσὶν οἵ , = Latin sunt qui, used exactly like{ἔνιοι}, Thucydides Historicus 6.88, 7.44, Plato Philosophus “Meno” 77d, “Grg.” 503a, etc. (εἰσί τινες οἵ.. Thucydides Historicus 3.24) ; ἐστὶν ἃ χωρία, πολίσματα, prev. author 1.12, 65; ἐστὶν ἃ εἰπεῖν prev. author 2.67; ἦσαν οἵ Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 5.2.14 ; the singular Verb is used even with masculine and feminine plural, ἐστὶν οἵ, αἵ, Hippocrates Medicus “περὶ ἀγμῶν” 1, “VC” 4, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 2.3.16 ; more frequently in oblique cases, ποταμῶν ἐστὶ ὧν Herodotus Historicus 7.187; ἐστὶν ἀφ᾽ ὧν Thucydides Historicus 8.65 ; ἐστὶ παρ᾽ οἷς, ἐστὶν ἐν οἷς, prev. author 1.23, 5.25: in questions ὅστις is used, ἔστιν ἥντινα δόξαν.. ἀπεκρίνατ; Plato Philosophus “Meno” 85b: with relat. Particles, ἐστὶν ἔνθα , = Latin est ubi, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 7.4.15, etc. ; ἐ. ὅπῃ, ἔσθ᾽ ὅπου, somehow, somewhere, Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 331d, Aeschylus Tragicus “Eumenides” 517, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 448, etc. ; in questions expecting a negative answer, ἐ. ὁπόθεν, ὅπω; Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 35a, “R.” 493e, etc.; οὐ γάρ ἐσθ᾽ ὅπως Pindarus Lyricus “Fragmenta.” 61, compare Herodotus Historicus 7.102, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 620 ; οὐκ ἔ. ὅπως οὐ in any case, necessarily, Aristophanes Comicus “Pax” 188; οὐκ ἔ. ὡς Plato Philosophus “Meno” 76e, etc. ; ἐ. ὅτε, ἔσθ᾽ ὅτε, sometimes, Pindarus Lyricus “Fragmenta.” 180.2, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 56, Thucydides Historicus 7.21, etc.
__A.V ἦν is sometimes used with plural masculine and feminine, usually at the beginning of a sentence, there was, τῆς δ᾽ ἦν τρεῖς κεφαλαί Hesiodus Epicus “Theogonia” 321; (but in ἦν δ᾽ ἐρῳδιοί τε πολλοί Epicharmus Comicus 46, compare 59, al., it may be taken as Doric. 3sg. pl.) ; ἦν δ᾽ ἀμφίπλεκτοι κλίμακες Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 520 (Lyric poetry) ; ἦν ἄρα κἀκεῖνοι ταλακάρδιοι epigram cited in Aeschines Orator 3.184; less frequently ἔστι, ἔστι δὲ μεταξὺ.. ἑπτὰ στάδιοι Herodotus Historicus 1.26, compare 7.34; ἔστι.. ἄρχοντές τε καὶ δῆμος Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 463a ; before dual Nouns, Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 58, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 500d.
__A.VI ἔστι impersonal, with infinitive, it is possible, ἔστι γὰρ ἀμφοτέροισιν ὀνείδεα μυθήσασθαι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 20.246; ἔστι μὲν εὕδειν, ἔστι δὲ τερπομένοισιν ἀκούειν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 15.392 ; εἴ τί πού ἐστι (i.e. πιθέσθαι) 4.193; τοιάδε.. ἐστὶν ἀκοῦσαι Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 1055 (anap.); ἔστι τεκμήρια ὁρᾶν Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 3.2.13, compare Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 1163, Aeschines Orator 3.105, Demosthenes Orator 18.272, Aristoteles Philosophus “Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία” 53.6, etc. ; so in imperative, optative, and subjunctive, ἔστω ἀποφέρεσθαι τῷ βουλομένῳ “IG” 12.10.7; μυρία ἂν εἴη λέγειν Plato Philosophus “Politicus” 271e; ὅπως ἂν ᾖ δρᾶν “IG” 2.1054.91: more frequently in neg. clauses, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 6.267, etc. ; followed by ὥστε with infinitive, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 656 : with accusative et infinitive, ἁδόντα δ᾽ εἴη με τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ὁμιλεῖν Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 2.96; ἔστιν ἐκπεσεῖν ἀρχῆς Δία Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 757 : sometimes not impersonal in this sense, θάλασσα δ᾽ οὐκέτ᾽ ἦν ἰδεῖν prev. author “Pers.” 419.
__A.VI.b ἔστω in argument, let it be granted, ἔστω τοῦτο ἀληθὲς εἶναι Dionysius Halicarnassensis “de Compositione Verborum” 25; ἔστω σοι τοῦθ᾽ οὕτως Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.987b; ἔστω εἶναί τινα τοιοῦτον Demosthenes Orator Chr.74.24.
__B most frequently, to be, the Copula connecting the predicate with the Subject, both being in the same case: hence, signify, import, τὸ γὰρ εἴρειν λέγειν ἐστίν Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 398d ; especially in the phrase τοῦτ᾽ ἔστι, hoc est; Σκαιόλαν, ὅπερ ἐστὶ Λαϊόν Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Publicola” 17: with numerals, τὰ δὶς πέντε δέκα ἐστίν twice five are ten, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 4.4.7 ; εἶναί τις or τι, to be somebody, something, be of some consequence, see at {τι; οὐδὲν εἶναι} Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 562d, etc.
__B.2 periphrastic with the Participle to represent the finite Verb: with perfect participle once in Homerus Epicus, τετληότες εἰμέν, for τετλήκαμεν, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.873 ; so in Trag. and Attic dialect, ἦν τεθνηκώς, for ἐτεθνήκει, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 869 ; ἔσται δεδορκώς prev. work 1179; εἰμὶ γεγώς Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 1299; πεφυκός ἐστι Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 1473; δεδρακότες εἰσίν Thucydides Historicus 3.68; κατακεκονότες ἔσεσθε Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 7.6.36 : with aorist participle, once in Homerus Epicus, βλήμενος ἦν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.211 ; so προδείσας εἰμί, οὐ σιωπήσας ἔσε; Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 90, 1146, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Supplices” 460 : with present participle, ἦν προκείμενον prev. author “Pers.” 371; φεύγων Ὀρέστης ἐστίν prev. author “Ch.” 136; εἴην οὐκ ἂν εὖ φρονῶν Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 1330 ; τί δ᾽ ἐστί.. φέρο; prev. author “OT” 991, compare 274, 708; λέγων ἐστίν τις Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 1179; ἦν τίς σ᾽ ὑβρίζων prev. author “HF” 313; πόρρω ἤδη εἶ πορευόμενος Plato Philosophus “Lysis” 204b; βαδίζων εἰμί Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 36; frequently in Herodotus Historicus, ἦσαν ἱέντες 1.57, al.; even εἰσὶ διάφοροι ἐόντες 3.49 (assuming variant): — if the Art. is joined with the Part., the noun is made emphatic, Κᾶρές εἰσι οἱ καταδέξαντες the persons who showed her were Carians, prev. author 1.171; αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ μαρτυρῶν Aeschylus Tragicus “Eumenides” 798; δόλος ἦν ὁ φράσας Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 197 (anap.).
__C εἶναι is frequently modified in sense by the addition of adverbs, or the cases of Nouns without or with Preps.:
__C.I εἶναι with adverbs, where the adverb often merely represents a Noun and stands as the predicate, ἅλις δέ οἱ ἦσαν ἄρουραι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 14.122, etc. ; ἀκέων, ἀκήν εἶναι, to be silent, 4.22, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.82; σῖγα πᾶς ἔστω λεώς Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 532; διαγνῶναι χαλεπῶς ἦν ἄνδρα ἕκαστον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.424 ; ἀσφαλέως ἡ κομιδὴ ἔσται will go on safely, Herodotus Historicus 4.134 ; ἐγγύς, πόρρω εἶναι, Thucydides Historicus 6.88, Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 356e: frequently impers. with words implying good or ill fortune, Κουρήτεσσι κακῶς ἦν it fared ill with them, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.551; εὖ γὰρ ἔσται Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 89, compare Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 1188, etc.; ἡδέως ἂν αὐτοῖς εἴη Demosthenes Orator 59.30.
__C.II with genitive, to express descent or extraction, πατρὸς δ᾽ εἴμ᾽ ἀγαθοῖο Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 21.109; αἵματός εἰς ἀγαθοῖο Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.611, compare Herodotus Historicus 3.71, Thucydides Historicus 2.71, etc.; πόλεως μεγίστης εἶ Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 7.3.19.
__C.II.b to express the material of which a thing is made, ἡ κρηπίς ἐστι λίθων μεγάλων consists of.., Herodotus Historicus 1.93; τῆς πόλιος ἐούσης δύο φαρσέων prev. work 186 ; τοιούτων ἔργων ἐστὶ ἡ τυραννίς is made up of.., prev. author 5.92 .ή, etc.
__C.II.c to express the class to which a person or thing belongs, εἶ γὰρ τῶν φίλων you are one of them, Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 345; ἐτύγχανε βουλῆς ὤν Thucydides Historicus 3.70; ὅσοι ἦσαν τῶν προτέρων στρατιωτῶν prev. author 7.44; Κριτίας τῶν τριάκοντα ὤν Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.2.31 ; ἔστι τῶν αἰσχρῶν it is in the class of disgraceful things, i. e. it is disgraceful, Demosthenes Orator 2.2.
__C.II.d to express that a thing belongs to another, Τροίαν Ἀχαιῶν οὖσαν Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 269; τὸ πεδίον ἦν μέν κοτε Χορασμίων Herodotus Historicus 3.117, etc. : hence, to be of the party of, ἦσαν.. τινὲς μὲν φιλίππου, τινὲς δὲ τοῦ βελτίστου Demosthenes Orator 9.56, compare 37.53 ; to be de pendent upon, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 737, etc. ; to be at the mercy of, ἔστι τοῦ λέγοντος, ἢν φόβους λέγῃ prev. author “OT” 917.
__C.II.e to express one's duty, business, custom, nature, and the like, οὔτοι γυναικός ἐστι 'tis not a woman's part, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 940; τὸ ἐπιτιμᾶν παντὸς εἶναι Demosthenes Orator 1.16 ; τὸ δὲ ναυτικὸν τέχνης ἐστίν is matter of art, requires art, Thucydides Historicus 1.142, compare 83.
__C.II.f in LXX, to be occupied about, ἦσαν τοῦ θύειν LXX.2Ch.30.17 ; ἔσεσθαι, with genitive, to be about to, ἐσόμεθα τοῦ σῶσαί σε LXX.2Ki.10.11.
__C.III with the dative, ἐστί μοι I have, frequently in Homerus Epicus, etc.
__C.III.2 with two datives., σφίσι τε καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι εἶναι οὐδὲν πρῆγμα that they and the Athenians have nothing to do one with another, Herodotus Historicus 5.84; μηδὲν εἶναι σοὶ καὶ φιλίππῳ πρᾶγμα Demosthenes Orator 18.283 ; more shortly, σοί τε καὶ τούτοισι πρήγμασι τί ἐστ; Herodotus Historicus 5.33 ; τί τῷ νόμῳ καὶ τῇ βασάν; Demosthenes Orator 29.36 ; τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σο; Latin quid tecum est mihi? NT.Mark.5.7, etc.; also ἐμοὶ οὐδὲν πρὸς τοὺς τοιούτους (i.e. ἐστίν) Isocrates Orator 4.12; ἐν οἷς πρὸς τοὺς ἐναντίους ἐστὶ τῷ δήμῳ Demosthenes Orator 18.278 ; ἔσται αὐτῳ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, in tomb inscriptions, “JHS” 18.113, etc.
__C.III.3 with ἄσμενος, βουλόμενος, etc., added, ἐμοὶ δέ κεν ἀσμένῳ εἴη 'twould be to my delight, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 14.108; οὐκ ἂν σφίσι βουλομένοις εἶναι Thucydides Historicus 7.35; προσδεχομένῳ prev. author 6.46; θέλοντι Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1356 (Lyric poetry); ἡδομένοις Plato Philosophus “Laches” 187c.
__C.IV with Preps., εἶναι ἀπό τινος, ={εἶναί τινος} (above 11.a), Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.6.9; εἰσὶν ἀπ᾽ ἐναντίων αὗται πραγμάτων Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 12d ; but εἶναι ἀπ᾽ οἴκου to be away from.., Thucydides Historicus 1.99.
__C.IV.2 εἶναι ἔκ τινος to be sprung from, εἴμ᾽ ἐκ Παιονίης, Μυρμιδόνων ἔξ εἰμι, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 21.154, 24.397, etc. ; ἔστιν ἐξ ἀνάγκης it is of necessity, i. e. necessary, Plato Philosophus “Sophista” 256d.
__C.IV.3 εἶναι ἐν.. to be in a certain state, ἐν εὐπαθείῃσι Herodotus Historicus 1.22 ; ἐν ἀθυμία, etc., Thucydides Historicus 6.46, etc.; ἐν ταραχαῖς Demosthenes Orator 18.218 ; εἶναι ἐν ἀξιώματι to be in esteem, Thucydides Historicus 1.130 ; οἱ ἐν τέλεϊ ἐόντες those in office, Herodotus Historicus 3.18, etc. ; but εἶναι ἐν τέχνῃ, ἐν φιλοσοφία to be engaged in.., Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 562, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 59a.
__C.IV.3.b ἐν σοί ἐστι it depends on thee, Herodotus Historicus 6.109, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 963; ἐν σοὶ γάρ ἐσμεν prev. author “OT” 314; so also ἐπί τινι prev. author “Ph.” 1003, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.6.2, etc.
__C.IV.4 εἶναι διά.., much like{εἶναι ἐν}.., εἶναι διὰ φόβου, ={φοβεῖσθαι}, Thucydides Historicus 6.34 ; εἶναι δι᾽ ὄχλου, ={ὀχληρὸν εἶναι}, prev. author 1.73; εἶναι διὰ μόχθων Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.6.25 ; εἶναι δι᾽ αἰτίας, ={αἰτιᾶσθαι}, Dionysius Halicarnassensis 1.70 ; Geometry texts, pass through, διὰ τᾶς ἑτέρας διαμέτρου ἐόντος τοῦ ἐπιπέδου Archimedes Geometra “περὶ κωνοειδέων καὶ σφαιροειδέων” 20.
__C.IV.5 εἶναι ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῆς to be by oneself, Demosthenes Orator 25.23 ; εἶναι ἐπὶ ὀνόματος to bear a name, prev. author 39.21 ; εἶναι ἐπὶ τοῖς πράγμασιν to be engaged in.., prev. author 2.12 ; εἶναι ἐπί τινα to be against him, prev. author 6.33 ; εἶναι ἐφ᾽ ἑξήκοντα στάδια to reach sixty stadia, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 4.6.11 ; εἶναι ἐπὶ τὰς ἁφάς pass through the points of contact, Apollonius Biographus Perg. “Con.” 4.1 ; εἶναι ἐπί τινι, see above 3 b.
__C.IV.6 εἶναι πρός τινος to be in one's favour, Thucydides Historicus 4.10, 29, etc. ; to suit, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.2.11, etc. ; εἶναι πρός τινι engaged in, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 84c, Philostratus Sophista “Vita Apollonii” 5.31 ; πρὸς τοῖς ἰδίοις mind one's own affairs, Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1309a6, “Ath.” 16.3; εἶναι πρὸς τὸ κωλύειν Polybius Historicus 1.26.3 ; πρὸς τὸ πονεῖν Teles p.46 H.; εἶναι περί τι Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 3.5.7, etc.
__C.IV.7 εἶναι παρά τινι or τινα, = παρειναι, prev. author “Cyr.” 6.2.15, Herodotus Historicus 8.140.ά (assuming variant).
__C.IV.8 εἶναι ὑπό τινα or τινι to be subject to.., Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 5.2.17 (assuming variant), 6.2.4.
__C.IV.9 περὶ τούτων ἐστίν that is the question, Menander Comicus “Ἐπιτρέποντες” 30.
__C.IV.10 εἶναι ἀπό.., in Geometry texts, to be constructed upon, Archimedes Geometra “περὶ σφαίρας καὶ κυλίνδρου” 2.9, “Con.Sph.” 7.
__D ἐστί is very frequently omitted, mostly in the present indicative before certain predicates, as ἀνάγκη, ἄξιον, δυνατόν, εἰκός, ἕτοιμον, οἷόν τε, ῥᾴδιον, χρεών, etc., and after the neuter of Verbals in -τέος, and such forms as θαυμαστὸν ὅσον: less frequently with other persons and moods, εἰμί omitted, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 92, “Aj.” 813 ; εἶ, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.206 ; ἐσμέν, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 634 ; ἐστέ, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 10.463 ; εἰσί, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 499 (Lyric poetry), “IG” 2.778 B ; subjunctive ᾖ, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 14.376, Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 659, Antipho Orator 5.32 ; optative εἴη, “IG” 22.1183.12 ; imperfect ἦν, prev. work2.778 B ; future ἔσονται, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 14.394.
__E the Inf. frequently seems redundant,
__E.1 in phrases implying power or will to do a thing, ἑκὼν εἶναι (see. ἑκών) κατὰ δύναμιν εἶναι Isaeus Orator 2.32; εἰς δύναμιν εἶναι Plato Philosophus “Politicus” 300c ; τὸ ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνοις εἶναι, quantum in illis esset, Thucydides Historicus 8.48, Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 3.5.9, compare Lysias Orator 13.58; τὸ ἐπὶ σφᾶς εἶναι Thucydides Historicus 4.28; τὸ κατὰ τοῦτον εἶναι Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.6.9; κατὰ τοῦτο εἶναι Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 317a ; τὸ τήμερον, τὸ νῦν εἶναι, prev. author “Cra.” 396e, “La.” 201c, Theopomp. Comedy texts 98, Decrees cited in Aristoteles Philosophus “Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία” 31.2, etc.
__E.2 after Verbs of naming or choosing, σοφιστὴν ὀνομάζουσι τὸν ἄνδρα εἶναι Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 311e; σύμμαχόν μιν εἵλοντο εἶναι Herodotus Historicus 8.134 ; of giving, δῶκε ξεινήϊον εἶναι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.20.
__F imperfect ἦνissts. used where other languages take the present,
__F.1 after ἄρα, to express a fact which is and has always been the same, δέρμα δὲ ἀνθρώπου.. ἦν ἄρα σχεδὸν δερμάτων πάντων λαμπρότατον human skin then it appears is.., Herodotus Historicus 4.64; Κύπρις οὐκ ἄρ᾽ ἦν θεός Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 359 ; ὡς ἄρ᾽ ἦσθ᾽ ἐμὸς πατὴρ ὀρθῶς prev. work 1169; ἦ πολύμοχθον ἄρ᾽ ἦν γένος.. ἁμερίων prev. author “IA” 1330; ἦ στωμύλος ἦσθα Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 5.79 ; so also when there is reference to a past thought, τουτὶ τί ἦ; what is this? Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 157, compare Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 387c: so in the Aristotelian formula τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι (“APo.” 82b38, al.) , used to express the essential nature of a thing, where τί ἦν (for ἐστί) takes the place of the dative in such phrases as τὸ ἀγαθῷ εἶναι, τὸ μεγέθει εἶναι, “APr.” 67b12, “de An.” 429b10.
__G ἐγώ εἰμι, in LXX, pleonastic for ἐγώ, ἐγώ εἰμι οὐχ ἥμαρτον LXX.Judg.11.27, compare 6.18; also ἔσται πᾶς ἀποκτενεῖ με LXX.Gen.4.14.

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks εἰμί G1510 "zijn, bestaan, gebeuren, aanwezig zijn"; Grieks τουτέστι G5123 "toutesti";

Literatuur


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