G2556 κακός
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kakos̱,
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Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

κακός, -ή, -όν, [in LXX chiefly for רַע H7451, רָעָחnoteprobably supposed to be רָעָה n="H7462"/note;] 1. in general, opp. to ἀγαθός, καλός, in various senses, bad, mean, base, worthless (cl.). 2. In ethical sense, base, evil, wicked: of persons, Mt 21:41 24:48, Phl 3:2, Re 2:2; διαλογισμοί, Mk 7:21; ὁμιλίαι, I Co 15:33; ἐπιθυμία (Pr 12:12), Col 3:5; ἔργον, Ro 13:3; neut., κακόν, τὸ κ., evil: Jo 18:23, Ac 23:9, Ro 7:21 14:20 16:19, I Co 13:5, He 5:14, I Pe 3:10, 11, III Jn 11; pl., Ro 1:30, I Co 10:6, I Ti 6:10, Ja 1:13; κ. (τὸ, τὰ κ.) ποιεῖν (πράσσειν), Mt 27:23, Mk 15:14, Lk 23:22, Jo 18:30, Ro 3:8 7:19 13:4, II Co 13:7, I Pe 3:12; κατεργάζεσθαι, Ro 2:9; of wrongs inflicted, Ac 9:13, Ro 12:17, 21 13:10, I Th 5:15, II Ti 4:14, I Pe 3:9. 3. pernicious, harmful, evil: Lk 16:25, Ac 16:28 28:5, Tit 1:12, Ja 3:8, Re 16:2 (Cremer, 325, 741).†

SYN.: v.s. ἄθεσμος G113.

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

κᾰκός, ή, όν,
  
__A bad:
__A.I of persons,
__A.I.1 of appearance, ugly, εἶδος μὲν ἔην κακός Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 10.316, compare Pausanias Periegeta 8.49.3.
__A.I.2 of birth, ill-born, mean, γένος ἐστὲ διοτρεφέων βασιλήων.., ἐπεὶ οὔ κε κακοὶ τοιούσδε τέκοιεν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.64; Ζεὺς δ᾽ αὐτὸς νέμει ὄλβον.. ἐσθλοῖς ἠδὲ κακοῖσι 6.189; οὐ κακὸν οὐδὲ μὲν ἐσθλόν 22.415; οὐδ᾽ ἐὰν.. φανῶ τρίδουλος, ἐκφανῇ κακή Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1063; κακός τ᾽ ὢν κἀκ κακῶν prev. work 1397.
__A.I.3 of courage, craven, base, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.365, 6.489; κακοῦ τρέπεται Χρὼς ἄλλυδις ἄλλῃ (called δειλὸς ἀνήρ in the line above) 13.279 ; Ἕκτωρ σε κ. καὶ ἀνάλκιδα φήσει 8.153, compare Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.375; κ. καὶ ἀνήνορα 10.301; οἵτινες.. ἐγένοντο ἄνδρες κ. ἢ ἀγαθοὶ ἐν τῇ ναυμαχίῃ Herodotus Historicus 6.14; κ. καὶ ἄθυμος prev. author 7.11 ; οὐδαμῶν κακίονες prev. work 104; κακοὺς πρὸς αἰχμήν Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 1306; κακή τ᾽ ἐς ἀλκὴν καὶ σίδηρον εἰσορᾶν Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 264; οὐδενὶ ἐπιτρέψοντας κακῷ εἶναι Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 3.2.31.
__A.I.4 bad of his kind, i. e. worthless, sorry, unskilled, ἡνίοχοι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 17.487 ; τοξότης ἢ κ. ἢ ἀγαθός prev. work 632; νομῆες Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 17.246 ; κ. ἀλήτης a bad beggar, prev. work 578; ἰατρός Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 473 ; κυβερνήτης, ναύτης, Euripides Tragicus “Supplices” 880, “Andr.” 457; μάγειρος Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 265e: with acc. modi, πάντα γὰρ οὐ κακός εἰμι I am not bad in all things, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.214; κ. γνώμην Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 910: also with dat., κακοὶ γνώμαισι prev. author “Aj.” 964 : with infinitive, κ. μανθάνειν prev. author “OT” 545 ; νῆσος φυτεύεσθαι κακή “Tragica Adespota” 393 ; compare 11.
__A.I.5 in moral sense, base, evil, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 11.384, Hesiodus Epicus “Opera et Dies” 240 ; opposed to Χρηστός, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 520; ὦ κακῶν κάκιστε prev. author “OT” 334, “Ph.” 984; πλεῖστον κάκιστος prev. author “OC” 744; κ. πρός τινας Thucydides Historicus 1.86; εἰς φίλους Euripides Tragicus “Orestes” 424 codices; περὶ τὰ Χρήματα Plato Philosophus “Clitopho” 407c.
__A.I.6 wretched, Herodas Mimographus 3.42.
__A.II of things, evil, pernicious, frequently in Homerus Epicus, etc., as δαίμων, θάνατος, μοῖρα, αἶσα, κῆρες, νοῦσος, ἕλκος, φάρμακα, ὀδύναι, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 10.64, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 3.173, 13.602, 1.418, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.316, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.10, 2.723, 22.94, 5.766 ; Χόλος, ἔρις, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 16.206, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.161 ; πόλεμος, ἔπος, ἔργα, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.82, 24.767, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.67, al. ; ἦμαρ, ἄνεμος, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.251, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 5.109 ; of omens and the like, unlucky, ὄρνις, ὄναρ, σῆμα, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 24.219, 10.496, 22.30: also in Trag., κ. τύχη, δαίμων, μόρος, Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 328, Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 354, 369, etc. ; of words, abusive, foul, κ. λόγοι Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 259, compare “Tr.” 461 ; κ. ποιμήν, i.e. the storm, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 657 : Astrology texts, unlucky, τόποι Hephaestio Astrologus 1.12 ; κ. τύχη, name for the sixth region, Paulus Alexandrinus Astrologus “M.” 1.
__B κακόν, τό, and κακά, τά, as substantive, evil, ill, δίδου δ᾽ ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.63; ἀθάνατον κακόν 12.118; ἐκ μεγάλων κακῶν πεφευγέναι Herodotus Historicus 1.65 ; so κ. ἄμαχον, ἄπρηκτα, Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 2.76, “I.” 8(7).8 ; ἔκπαγλον, ἄφερτον, ἀμήχανον, etc., Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 862, 1102, Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 447, etc. ; κακὸν ἥκει τινί there's trouble in store for some one, Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 552 ; δυοῖν ἀποκρίνας κακοῖν the least of two evils, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 640, compare “OC” 496 ; κακῶν Ἰλιάς, see at {Ἰλιά; κακόν τι ῥέξαι τινά} to do harm or ill to any one, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.195, etc.; πολλὰ κάκ᾽ ἀνθρώποισιν ἐώργει Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 14.289 ; κακὰ φέρειν, τεύχειν τινί, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.304, Hesiodus Epicus “Opera et Dies” 265 ; κακόν τι (or κακὰ) ποιεῖν τινα (see. δράω, ποιέω, ἐργάζομαι); κακὸν πάσχειν ὑπό τινος to suffer evil from one, Thucydides Historicus 8.48, etc.: in Trag. frequently repeated, κακὰ κακῶν, ={τὰ κάκιστα}, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 1238 (Lyric poetry); εἴ τι πρεσβύτερον ἔτι κακοῦ κακόν prev. author “OT” 1365 (Lyric poetry); δεινὰ πρὸς κακοῖς κακά prev. author “OC” 595, compare “Ant.” 1281; δόσιν κακὰν κακῶν κακοῖς Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 1041 (Lyric poetry).
__B.2 κακά, τά, evil words, reproaches, πολλά τε καὶ κακὰ λέγειν Herodotus Historicus 8.61, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Septem contra Thebas” 571, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 1244, “Ph.” 382, etc.
__B.3 Philos., κακόν, τό, Evil, Stoic. 3.18, al., Plotinus Philosophus 1.8.1, al.
__B.4 of a person, pest, nuisance, τουτὶ παρέξει τὸ κ. ἡμῖν πράγματα Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 931 ; also, comically, ὅσον συνείλεκται κακὸν ὀρνέων what a devil of a lot of birds, prev. work 294.
__C degrees of Comparison:
__C.1 regular comparative in Epic dialect, κακώτερος Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 6.275, 15.343, Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 27.22, Apollonius Rhodius Epicus 3.421, etc. : also in late Prose, Alciphro Epistolographus 3.62 : irregular κακίων, ον with ῐ, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.277, Theognis Elegiacus 262, etc. , with ῑ in Trag., except Euripides Tragicus “Fragmenta” 546 (anap.); κακῑότερος “Anthologia Graeca” 12.7 (from Strato).
__C.2 superlative κάκιστος Homerus Epicus, etc.--Cf. also Χείρων, Χείριστος, and ἥσσων, ἥκιστος.
__D adverb κακῶς ill, ἢ εὖ ἦε κακῶς Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.253, etc. ; κακῶς ποιεῖν τινα to treat one ill; κακῶς ποιεῖν τι to hurt, damage a thing; κακῶς ποιεῖν τινά τι to do one any evil or harm; κ. πράσσειν to fare ill, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 266, etc.; κάκιον ἢ πρότερον πράττειν Andocides Orator 4.11; κ. ἔχειν Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 58, etc. ; of illness, NT.Matt.4.24; rarely κακῶς πάσχειν Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 759, 1041 (anap.); Χρῆν Κανδαύλῃ γενέσθαι κ. Herodotus Historicus 1.8; κ. ὄλοισθε Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 1035, etc. ; with play on two senses, ὡς κ. ἔχει ἅπας ἰατρός, ἂν κ. μηδεὶς ἔχῃ 3rd c.BC(?): Philemo Junior Comicus 2 ; κ. ἐρεῖν τινά, λέγειν τὴν πόλιν, Mimnermus Lyricus 7.4, Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 503 ; κ. εἰδότες, ={ἀγνοοῦντες}, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 2.3.13, Isocrates Orator 8.32, compare Hyperides Orator “pro Euxenippo” 33 ; κακῶς ἐκπέφευγα I have barely escaped, Demosthenes Orator 21.126 : comparative κάκιον Herodotus Historicus 1.109, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 428, And. same place, Plato Philosophus “Menexenus” 236a, etc. : superlative κάκιστα Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 1456, “Pax” 2, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 420b, etc.
__D.2 adverb and adjective frequently coupled in Trag., Attic dialect, etc., κακὸν κακῶς νιν.. ἐκτρῖψαι βίον Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 248; κακὸς κακῶς ταφήσῃ Euripides Tragicus “Troades” 446 (troch.); ἀπό σ᾽ ὀλῶ κακὸν κακῶς Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 65, compare “Eq.” 189, 190, Demosthenes Orator 32.6, Procopius Caesariensis Historicus “de Bello Persico” 1.24; κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσει αὐτούς NT.Matt.21.41; κακοὺς κάκιστα Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 839 ; in reversed order, ὥσπερ ἀξία κακῶς κακὴ θανεῖται Euripides Tragicus “Troades” 1055 ; with intervening words, κακῶς.. ἀπόλλυσθαι κακούς Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 1369, compare Euripides Tragicus “Cyclops” 268, Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 2 . (Perh. cognate with Avest. kasu-, comparative kasyah-, superlative kasišta- 'small', Lithuanian nukašëti 'grow feeble, thin', \{1st c.BC-1st c.AD\}: Germanicus Caesar Epigrammaticus hager.)

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks ἀνεξίκακος G420 "lankmoedig, standvastig"; Grieks ἐκκακέω G1573 "moedeloos worden"; Grieks ἥττον G2276 "zwakker, minder goed"; Grieks κακία G2549 "boosaardigheid, kwaadaardigheid, slechtheid, boosheid"; Grieks κακόω G2559 "boos maken, verbitteren, kwaaddoen, pijn doen, mishandelen"; Grieks κακῶς G2560 "ellendig, ongelukkig, onjuist, ten onrechte, lasterlijk"; Grieks πονηρός G4190 "ergernissen, ontberingen"; Grieks χείρων G5501 "";

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