G4089 πικρός
bitter, verbitterd, hard
Taal: Grieks

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pikros̱,
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Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

πικρός, -ά, -όν (poët. in cl.), [in LXX chiefly for מַר H4751;] 1. sharp, pointed. 2. sharp to the senses; of taste, bitter: opp. to γλυκύ, Ja 3:11; metaph., harsh, bitter: Ja 3:14.

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

πικρός, ά, όν,
  poetry also ός, όν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.406 :—properly pointed, sharp, keen, ὀϊστός Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.118, al.; βέλεμνα 22.206; γλωχίς Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 681: metaph., γλώσσης πικροῖς κέντροισι Euripides Tragicus “Hercules Furens” 1288.
__II generally, sharp to the sense:
__II.1 of taste, pungent, ῥίζα Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.846; ἅλμη Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 5.323; δάκρυον (variant for{πυκνόν}) 4.153 ; of salt water, opposed to γλυκύς, Herodotus Historicus 4.52, compare 7.35 ; ἁλμυρὸς καὶ π. Plato Philosophus “Leges” 705a ; πριγλία π. “PCair.Zen.” 82.8 (3rd c.BC) ; ἀπ᾽ ὄμφακος πικρᾶς Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 970 ; ὑγρότης π., opposed to ὀξεῖα, Meno Medicus “Iatrika” 5.13 ; also of smell, pungent, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.406; πικρὸν ὀδωδώς Alciphro Epistolographus 3.59. (This sense prevails in the derived and compd. words.)
__II.2 of feeling, sharp, keen, ὠδῖνες Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.271, Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 41.
__II.3 of sound, piercing, shrill, οἰμωγά prev. author “Ph.” 189 (Lyric poetry); φθόγγος prev. author “OC” 1610 ; γόοι, ὄδυρμα, Euripides Tragicus “Phoenissae” 883, “Tr.” 1227 (Lyric poetry); πικροτάτη ὄψ Aristophanes Comicus “Pax” 805 (Lyric poetry).
__III metaphorically,
__III.1 of things, bitter, especially of what yields pain instead of expected pleasure, frequently in threats, μὴ τάχα πικρὴν Αἴγυπτον καὶ Κύπρον ἵκηαι (variant{ἴδηαι}) Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 17.448, compare Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 1045, “Th.” 883 (Lyric poetry), Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 399, “IA” 955, “Ba.” 357, “Cyc.” 589; π. Σίγειον κατηγόμην Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 355; τὸ πὰρ δίκαν γλυκὺ πικροτάτα μένει τελευτά Pindarus Lyricus “I.” 7(6).48, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 745 (Lyric poetry) ; τιμωρία, ἀγῶνες, prev. author “Pers.” 473, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 1239 ; δύαι, χεῖμα, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 180 (Lyric poetry), “Ag.” 198 (Lyric poetry); πικρότερ᾽ ἀχέων prev. author “Supp.” 875 (Lyric poetry); λόγοι Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 481; πικροτάτου χρυσοῦ φύλαξ prev. author “Hec.” 772; τὸ δὴ λεγόμενον γλυκὺ πικρῷ μεμειγμένον Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 46c; ἔχει τι τὸ π. τῆς γεωργίας γλυκύ Menander Comicus 795 : with infinitive, μὴ λίαν πικρὸν εἰπεῖν ᾖ Demosthenes Orator 1.26.
__III.2 so of persons, probably in Sappho Lyrica “Papyrus fragments” in E. Diehl, 4.1 (Comp.) ; γλυκὺν ὧδε φίλοις ἐχθροῖσι δὲ π. Solon Lyricus 13.5, compare Theognis Elegiacus 301, Aeschylus Tragicus “Choephori” 234, “Eu.” 152 (Lyric poetry), etc.; ἔς τινας Herodotus Historicus 1.123: abs., Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 739, “Th” 940(Lyric poetry) ; π. θεοῖς hateful to them, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 254; π. πολίταις Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 224, compare “Supp.” 1222 ; ἐμοὶ π. τέθνηκεν ἢ κείνοις γλυκύς his death is matter of sorrow to me, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 966 ; δαίμων π., of untimely death (Latin acerbus), Inscriptiones Graecae 3.1338.
__III.3 embittered, angry, πικρὰ ὄρνις Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 423.
__III.4 relentless, οὐδὲν πικρότερον τῆς ἀνάγκης Antipho Orator 2.2.4 ; spiteful, mean, vindictive, βάσκανον καὶ πικρὸν καὶ κακόηθες οὐδέν ἐστι πολίτευμα ἐμόν Demosthenes Orator 18.108; π. καὶ συκοφάντης prev. author 25.45, compare Aristoteles Philosophus “Rhetorica” 1368b21, “EN” 1126a19 : in Comedy texts of old men, σκυθρός, π., φειδωλός Menander Comicus 10, compare 825, 843, “Georg.fragment” 3. adverb -ρῶς pedantically, Dionysius Halicarnassensis “de Lysia” 6 ; with rigid accuracy, Apollonius Citiensis Medicus 3, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.659f.
__IV adverb -ρῶς harshly, bitterly, vindictively, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 197, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 990; π. ἐξετάσαι Demosthenes Orator 2.27, 18.265 ; π. ἔχειν τισί, πρός τινας, prev. author 10.54, “Ep.” 3.10; π. φέρειν τι Euripides Tragicus “Ion” 610, compare “Andr.” 190; ἔκλαυσε π. NT.Matt.26.75 : comparative -ότερον Menander Comicus “Μονόστιχοι - Fragmenta Comicorum Graecorum” 659, etc. : superlative -ότατα Polybius Historicus 1.72.3. ῑ in Homerus Epicus and Epic dialect; ῐ frequently in Trag., as Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 473, “Ag.” 970, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 500, Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 772, and in Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 8.74 : ι therefore is not long by nature as in μικρός.

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks πήγνυμι G4078 "vastmaken, bevestigen"; Grieks πικραίνω G4087 "bitter maken, verbitteren, prikkelen"; Grieks πικρία G4088 "bitterheid, bittere gal"; Grieks πικρῶς G4090 "bitter";

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