G4314 πρός
ten voordele van, bij, tegen, aan
Taal: Grieks

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pros, vz een versterkte vorm van πρό G04253; TDNT - 6:720,942;


1) ten voordele van; 2) bij, tegen, aan; 3) naar, tot, op ... toe, tegen


Synoniemen en gelijksoortige woorden


Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

πρός, prep. c. gen., dat., acc. I. C. gen., of motion from a place, from the side of, hence metaph., in the interests of, Ac 27:34 (cf. Page, in l.). II. C. dat., of local proximity, hard by, near, at: Mk 5:11, Lk 19:37, Jo 18:16 20:11, 12, Re 1:13. III. C. acc., of motion or direction towards a place or object, to, towards 1. (a) after verbs of motion or of speaking and other words with the idea of direction: ἔρχομαι, ἀναβαίνω, πορεύομαι, λέγω, ἐπιστολή, etc., Mt 3:14, Mk 6:51, Lk 11:5, Jo 2:3, Ac 9:2, al. mult.; metaph., of mental direction, hostile or otherwise, Lk 23:12, Jo 6:52, II Co 7:4, Eph 6:12, Col 3:13, al.; of the issue or end, Lk 14:32, Jo 11:4, al.; of purpose, Mt 26:12, Ro 3:26, I Co 6:5, al.; πρὸς τό, c. inf., denoting purpose (cf. M, Pr., 218, 220; Lft., Notes, 131), Mt 5:28, Mk 13:22, Eph 6:11, I Th 2:9, al.; (b) of close proximity, at, by, with: Mt 3:10, Mk 11:4, Lk 4:11, Ac 3:2, al.; after εἶναι, Mt 13:56, Mk 6:3, Jo 1:1, al. 2. (a) towards (Plat., Xen., LXX: Ge 8:11, al.): Lk 24:29; (b) for: πρὸς καιρόν, Lk 8:13, I Co 7:5; πρὸς ὥραν, Jo 5:35, al.; πρὸς ὀλίγον, Ja 4:14. 3. (a) toward, with: Ro 5:1, II Co 1:12, Col 4:5, I Th 4:12, al.; (b) with regard to: Mt 19:8, Mk 12:12, Ro 8:31, al.; (c) pertaining to, to: Mt 27:4, Jo 21:22, Ro 15:17, He 2:17 5:1; (d) according to: Lk 12:47, II Co 5:10, Ga 2:14, Eph 3:4 4:14; (e) in comparison with: Ro 8:18. IV. In composition: towards (προσέρχομαι), to (προσάγω), against (προσκόπτω), besides (προσδαπανάω).

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

πρός,
  preposition, expressing direction,
__A on the side of, in the direction of, hence with genitive, dative, and accusative, from, at, to: Epic dialect also προτί and ποτί, in Homerus Epicus usually with accusative, more rarely with dative, and each only once with genitive, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.831, 22.198 :—dialectal forms: Doric dialectποτί (which see) and ποί, but Cretan dialect πορτί “Leg.Gort.” 5.44, etc. , Argive προτ(ί) “Schwyzer” 84.3 (found at Tylisus, 5th c.BC), restored in “Mnemos.” 57.208(Argos, 6th c.BC), and in Alcman Lyricus 30; 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus, Cypria πός “SIG” 306.11 (Tegea, 4th c.BC), “Inscription Cyprian dialect” 135.19 H ., also sometimes in Asia Minor in compounds, see at {ποσάγω},{ποσφέρω}; Aeolic dialect πρός Sappho Lyrica 69 (προσ-), 109, Alcaeus Lyricus 20 (assuming variant) ; πρές Joannes Alexandrinus Grammaticus “Comp.” 3.10 ; Pamphylian περτ (ί) “Schwyzer” 686.7, 686a 4. (With προτί, πρός cf. Sanskrit práti 'towards, near to, against, back, etc.', Slavonic protiv ucaron, Lett. pret 'against', Latin pretium: ποτί (which see) and πός are not cognate) Aeschylus Tragicus WITH GEN., πρός refers to that from which something comes:
__A.I of Place, from, ἵκετο ἠὲ π. ἠοίων ἦ ἑσπερίων ἀνθρώπων Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.29; τὸν π. Σάρδεων ἤλεκτρον Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 1037 (variant).
__A.I.2 on the side of, towards, νήσοισι πρὸς Ἤλιδος towards Elis, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 21.347 ; π. ἁλός, π. Θύμβρης, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 10.428, 430; εἶναι π. θαλάσσης Herodotus Historicus 2.154; ἱδρῦσθαι π. τοῦ Ἑλλησπόντου prev. author 8.120; ἐστρατοπεδεύοντο π. Ὀλύνθου Thucydides Historicus 1.62, etc. ; φυλακαὶ π. Αἰθιόπων, π. Ἀραβίων, π. Διβύης, on the frontier towards the Ethiopians, etc., Herodotus Historicus 2.30: frequently with words denoting the points of the compass, δύω θύραι εἰσίν, αἱ μὲν π. βορέαο, αἱ δ᾽ αὖ π. νότου one on the north side, the other on the south side, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 13.110; οἰκέουσι π. νότου ἀνέμου Herodotus Historicus 3.101; π. ἄρκτου τε καὶ βορέω ἀνέμου κατοικημένοι prev. work 102; π. μεσαμβρίης prev. work 107 ; π. τοῦ Τμώλου τετραμμένον τῆς πόλιος (in such phrases the accusative is more common) prev. author 1.84; π. Πλαταιῶν Thucydides Historicus 3.21; π. Νεμέας prev. author 5.59 ; ἀπὸ τῆσδε τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ π. τοῦ λιμένος ἅπαν everything on the harbour-ward side of this road, “IG” 12.892: combined with π. with acc., π. ἠῶ τε καὶ τοῦ Τανάϊδος Herodotus Historicus 4.122; τὸν μέν π. βορέω ἑστεῶτα, τὸν δὲ π. νότον prev. author 2.121, compare 4.17.
__A.I.3 before, in presence of, μάρτυροι ἔστων π. τε θεῶν μακάρων π. τε θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.339; οὐδ᾽ ἐπιορκήσω π. δαίμονος 19.188 ; ποίτοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος.. ὑπίσχομαι probably in “IG” 22.1126.7 (Amphict. Delph., 4th c.BC); ὑποσχομένους πρὸς τοῦ Διός prev. work1237.16: hence,
__A.I.3.b in the eyes of, ἄδικον οὐδὲν οὔτε π. θεῶν οὔτε π. ἀνθρώπων Thucydides Historicus 1.71, compare Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.6.6, etc. ; ὅσιος π. θεῶν Legal cited in Andocides Orator 1.97 ; κατειπάτω.. ἁγνῶς π. τοῦ θεοῦ if he wishes to be pure in the sight of the god, “SIG” 986.9, compare 17 (Chios, 5th-4th c.BC) ; ὁ γὰρ καιρὸς π. ἀνθρώπων βραχὺ μέτρον ἔχει Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 4.286.
__A.I.4 in supplication or adjuration, before, and so, in the name of, σε.. γουνάζομαι.. π. τ᾽ ἀλόχου καὶ πατρός Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 11.67; π. θεῶν πατρῴων Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 839 (Lyric poetry), etc. ; ἱκετεύω, ἀντιβολῶ π. παίδων, π. γυναικῶν, etc., Demosthenes Orator 28.20, etc.: the verb is frequently omitted with π. θεῶν or τῶν θεῶν, Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 551, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1037, Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 760; π. τοῦ Διός prev. author “Av.” 130 : less frequently with other words, π. τῆς ἑστίας Euripides Tragicus “Fragmenta” 953.39; π. Χαρίτων Lucianus Sophista “Hist.Conscr.” 14; μὴ π. γενείου Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 1208; μὴ π. ξενίας τᾶς σᾶς prev. author “OC” 515 (Lyric poetry) : sometimes in questions, π. θεῶν, τίς οὕτως εὐήθης ἐστί; in heaven's name, Demosthenes Orator 1.15; π. τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς..; Dinarchus Orator 1.45; ἆρ᾽ οὖν, ὦ π. Διός,..; Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 459a, compare “Ap.” 26e : sometimes in Trag. with the pronoun σε between preposition and case, π. νύν σε πατρὸς π. τε μητρός.. ἱκνοῦμαι Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 468; μὴ π. σε γονάτων Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 324.
__A.I.5 of origin or descent, from, on the side of, γένος ἐξ Ἁλικαρνησσοῦ τὰ π. πατρός by the father's side, Herodotus Historicus 7.99; Ἀθηναῖον.. καὶ τὰ π. πατρὸς καὶ τὰ π. μητρός Demosthenes Orator 57.17, compare Isocrates Orator 3.42, “SIG” 1015.7 (Halic.) ; πρόγονοι ἢ π. ἀνδρῶν ἢ γυναικῶν in the male or female line, Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 173d; ὁ πατὴρ π. μὲν ἀνδρῶν ἦν τῶν Εὐπατριδῶν Isocrates Orator 16.25; οἱ συγγενεῖς τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ π. ἀνδρῶν καὶ π. γυναικῶν Demosthenes Orator 57.23 ; οἱ π. αἵματος blood-relations, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 1305; ἢ φίλων τις ἢ π. αἵματος φύσιν prev. author “El.” 1125.
__A.II of effects proceeding from what cause soever:
__A.II.1 from, at the hand of, with Verbs of having, receiving, etc., ὡς ἂν.. τιμὴν καὶ κῦδος ἄρηαι π. πάντων Δαναῶν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 16.85, compare 1.160, etc.; τιμὴν π. Ζηνὸς ἔχοντες Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 11.302; δίδοι οἱ.. χάριν ποτ᾽ ἀστῶν καὶ ποτὶ ξείνων Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 7.90; ἄνθεα τιμῆς πρὸς θνητῶν ἀνελέσθαι Empedocles Poeta Philosophus 4.7; φυλακῆς π. δήμου κυρῆσαι Herodotus Historicus 1.59; τυχεῖν τινος π. θεῶν Aeschylus Tragicus “Septem contra Thebas” 550, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 527; λαχὼν π. δαιμόνων ὄλβον Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 9.45; κακόν τι π. θεῶν ἢ π. ἀνθρώπων λαβεῖν Herodotus Historicus 2.139, etc.; μανθάνειν π. ἀστῶν Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 13: with passive Verbs, προτὶ Ἀχιλλῆος δεδιδάχθαι to have been taught by.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.831, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 357; ἄριστα πεποίηται.. πρὸς Τρώων Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 6.57 ; αἴσχε᾽ ἀκούω π. Τρώων prev. work 525, compare 1st c.AD(?): Heraclitus 79; ταῦτα.. π. τούτου κλύειν Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 429; οὐ λέγεται π. οὐδαμῶν Herodotus Historicus 1.47; ἀτιμάζεσθαι, τετιμῆσθαι π. τινῶν, prev. work 61, 2.75 ; also λόγου οὐδενὸς γίνεσθαι π. τινῶν prev. author 1.120 ; παθεῖν τι π. τινός at the hand of, prev. work 73; π. ἀλλήλοιν θανεῖν Euripides Tragicus “Phoenissae” 1269, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1237 ; π. τῆς τύχης ὄλωλεν prev. work 949; τὸ ποιεύμενον π. τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων Herodotus Historicus 7.209; αἰτηθέντες π. τινὸς χρήματα prev. author 8.111; ἱμέρου βέλει π. σοῦ τέθαλπται Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 650 : with an adjective or substantive, τιμήεσσα π. πόσιος Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 18.162; ἐπίφθονος π. τῶν πλεόνων ἀνθρώπων Herodotus Historicus 7.139; ἔρημος π. φίλων Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 919; ἀπαθὴς π. ἀστῶν Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 4.297; πειθὼ π. τινός Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 562; π. Τρώων.. κλέος εἶναι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 22.514 ; ἄρκεσις π. ἀνδρός, δόξα π. ἀνθρώπων, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 73, Euripides Tragicus “Heraclidae” 624 (Lyric poetry); ἐλίπετο ἀθάνατον μνήμην π. Ἑλλησποντίων Herodotus Historicus 4.144: with an adverb, οἶμαι γὰρ ἂν οὐκ ἀχαρίστως μοι ἔχειν οὔτε π. ὑμῶν οὔτε π. τῆς Ἑλλάδος I shall meet with no ingratitude at your hands, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 2.3.18, compare Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 463d.
__A.II.2 of things, π. τίνος ποτ᾽ αἰτίας τέθνηκεν; from of by what cause? Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1236 ; π. ἀμπλακημάτων by or by reason of.., prev. author “Ant.” 51.
__A.III of dependence or close connexion: hence,
__A.III.1 dependent on one, under one's protection, π. Διός εἰσι ξεῖνοί τε πτωχοί τε Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 6.207, 14.57 ; δικασπόλοι, οἵ τε θέμιστας π. Διὸς εἰρύαται by commission from him, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.239 ; π. ἄλλης ἱστὸν ὑφαίνοις at the bidding of another, 6.456.
__A.III.2 on one's side, in one's favour, Herodotus Historicus 1.75, 124, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1434, “Tr.” 479, etc.; π. τῶν ἐχόντων.. τὸν νόμον τίθης Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 57.
__A.IV of that which is derivable from: hence, agreeable to, becoming, like, τὰ τοιαῦτα ἔργα οὐ π. τοῦ ἅπαντος ἀνδρὸς νενόμικα γίνεσθαι, ἀλλὰπ. ψυχῆς τε ἀγαθῆς καὶ ῥώμης ἀνδρηΐης Herodotus Historicus 7.153, compare 5.12 ; ἦ κάρτα π. γυναικὸς αἴρεσθαι κέαρ 'tis very like a woman, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 592, compare 1636; οὐ π. ἰατροῦ σοφοῦ θρηνεῖν ἐπῳδάς Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 581, compare Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 369, Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 950, etc.; π. σοῦ ἐστι prev. author “HF” 585, etc.; οὐκ ἦν π. τοῦ Κύρου τρόπου Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.2.11, etc.: of qualities, etc., π. δυσσεβείας Aeschylus Tragicus “Choephori” 704 ; π. δίκης οὐδὲν τρέμων agreeably to justice, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1014, compare “El.” 1211; οὐ π. τῆς ὑμετέρας δόξης Thucydides Historicus 3.59 ; ἐάν τι ἡμῖν π. λόγου ᾖ if it be at all to our purpose, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 459c; εἰ τόδε π. τρόπου λέγω correctly, prev. author “R.” 470c ; but π. τρόπου τι ὠνεῖσθαι buy at a reasonable price, Theophrastus Philosophus “Characteres” 30.12; τὰ γενήματα π. ἐλάσσονος τιμᾶς πωλῶν “IG” 5(2).515.14 (from Lycosura) ; π. ἀγαθοῦ, π. κακοῦ τινί ἐστι or γίγνεται, it is to one's advantage or otherwise, Aristoteles Philosophus “de Mundo” 397a30, Arrianus Historicus “Anabasis” 7.16.5, Heliodorus Scriptor Eroticus 7.12 ; π. ἀτιμίας λαβεῖν τι to take a thing as an insult, regard it so, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Cicero” 13; π. δέους λαβεῖν τι prev. author “Flam.” 7 ; λαβεῖν τι π. ὀργῆς (variant{ὀργήν}) Josephus Historicus “Antiquitates Judaicae” 8.1.3; μοι π. εὐκλείας γένοιτο prev. work 18.7.7 ; τῷ δήμῳ π. αἰσχύνης ἂν ἦν, π. ὀνείδους ἂν ἦν τῇ πόλει, Libanius Sophista “Declamationes” 43.27, 28.
__B WITH DAT., it expresses proximity, hard by, near, at, ποτὶ γαίῃ Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.190, 11.423; ποτὶ γούνασι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.408 ; ποτὶ δρυσίν among the oaks, 14.398 (nisi to be read περί) ; πρὸς ἄκμονι χαλκεύειν Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 1.86; ποτὶ γραμμᾷ στᾶσαί τινα prev. work 9.118 ; ἄγκυραν ποτὶ ναΐ κρημνάντων prev. work 4.24; δῆσαί τινα πρὸς φάραγγι Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 15; νεὼς καμούσης ποντίῳ π. κύματι prev. author “Th.” 210; π. μέσῃ ἀγορᾷ Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 371; π. Ἀργείων στρατῷ prev. author “Aj.” 95; π. πέδῳ κεῖται prev. author “OT” 180 (Lyric poetry) ; θακεῖν π. ναοῖς prev. work 20, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Eumenides” 855; π. ἡλίου ναίουσι πηγαῖς prev. author “Pr.” 808; π. τῇ γῇ ναυμαχεῖν Thucydides Historicus 7.34 ; ἐς μάχην καθίστασθαι π. (variant ὑπ᾽) αὐτῇ τῇ πόλει prev. author 2.79; τεῖχος π. τῇ θαλάσσῃ prev. author 3.105; αἱ π. θαλάττῃ πόλεις Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 4.8.1 ; τὸ π. Αἰγίνῃ στράτευμα off Aegina, Thucydides Historicus 1.105 ; Αίβυες οἱ π. Αἰγύπτῳ bordering on.., prev. work 104 ; τὸ π. ποσί that which is close to the feet, before one, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 130, etc. ; θρηνεῖν ἐπῳδὰς π... πήματι over it, prev. author “Aj.” 582 ; αἱ π. τῇ βάσει γωνίαι the angles at the base, Euclides Geometra 1.5, al.; τὴν π. τῷ.. ιερῷ κρήνην “IG” 22.338.13, compare “SIG” 1040.15 (Piraeus, 4th c.BC), al.
__B.2 before, in the presence of, π. τοῖς θεσμοθέταις, π. τῷ διαιτητῇ λέγειν, Demosthenes Orator 20.98, 39.22; ὅσα π. τοῖς κριταῖς γέγονεν prev. author 21.18; π. διαιτητῇ φεύγειν prev. author 22.28.
__B.3 with Verbs denoting motion towards a place, upon, against, ποτὶ δὲ σκῆπτρον βάλε γαίῃ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.245, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.80; με βάλῃ.. ποτὶ πέτρῃ 5.415, compare 7.279, 9.284; νῆας ποτὶ σπιλάδεσσιν ἔαξαν 3.298, compare 5.401 ; λιαζόμενον ποτὶ γαίῃ sinking on the ground, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 20.420; ἴσχοντες πρὸς ταῖς πόλεσι Thucydides Historicus 7.35.
__B.4 sometimes with a notion of clinging closely, προτὶ οἷ λάβε clasped to him, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 20.418; προτὶ οἷ εἷλε 21.507; πρὸς ἀλλήλῃσιν ἔχονται Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 5.329; προσπεπλασμένας.. π. ὄρεσι Herodotus Historicus 3.111 ; π. δμῳαῖσι κλίνομαι fall into the arms of.., Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 1189; π. τινί close to, Menander Comicus “Ἐπιτρέποντες” 204.
__B.II to express close engagement, at the point of, π. αὐτῷ γ᾽ εἰμὶ τῷ δεινῷ λέγειν Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1169 ; engaged in or about, π. τῷ εἰρημένῳ λόγῳ ἦν Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 84c, compare “Phdr.” 249c, 249d; ἂν π. τῷ σκοπεῖν.. γένησθε Demosthenes Orator 18.176; ἀεὶ π. ᾧ εἴη ἔργῳ, τοῦτο ἔπραττεν Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 4.8.22 ; διατρίβειν or σχολάζειν π. τινί, Epicrates Comicus 11.3 (anap.), Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1308b36 (but π. ταῦτα ἐσχόλασα Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 3.6.6); ὅλος εἶναι π. τῷ λήμματι Demosthenes Orator 19.127; π. τῇ ἀνάγκῃ ταύτῃ γίγνεσθαι Aeschines Orator 1.74 ; τὴν διάνοιαν, τὴν γνώμην ἔχειν π. τινί, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 500b, Aeschines Orator 3.192 ; κατατάξαι αὐτὸν π. γράμμασιν, i.e. give him a post as clerk, “PCair.Zen.” 342.3 (3rd c.BC) ; ὁ π. τοῖς γράμμασι τεταγμένος Polybius Historicus 15.27.7, compare 5.54.7, Diodorus Siculus Historicus 2.29, 3.22; ἐπιμελητὴς π. τῇ εἰκασίᾳ τοῦ σησάμου “PTeb.” 713.2, compare 709.1 (2nd c.BC).
__B.III to express union or addition, once in Homerus Epicus, ἄασάν μ᾽ ἕταροί τε κακοὶ π. τοῖσί τε ὕπνος and besides them sleep, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 10.68; π. τοῖς παροῦσιν ἄλλα in addition to, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 323, compare “Pers.” 531, Xenophanes Poeta Philosophus 8.3. Empedocles Poeta Philosophus 59.3; ἄλλους π. ἑαυτῷ Thucydides Historicus 1.90 ; π. ταῖς ἡμετέραις τριήρεσι prev. author 6.90; δέκα μῆνας π. ἄλλοις πέντε Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 45; τρίτος.. π. δέκ᾽ ἄλλαισιν γοναῖς Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 774 ; κυβερνήτης π. τῇ σκυτοτομίᾳ in addition to his trade of leather-cutter, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 397e: frequently with neut. _adjectives_, π. τῷ νέῳ ἁπαλός besides his youth, prev. author “Smp.” 195c, compare “Tht.” 185e; π. τῷ βλαβερῷ καὶ ἀηδέστατον prev. author “Phdr.” 240b ; π. τούτοισι besides this, Herodotus Historicus 2.51, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 237 (troch.), etc. ; rarely in singular, π. τούτῳ Herodotus Historicus 1.31, 41 ; π. τοῖς ἄλλοις besides all the rest, Thucydides Historicus 2.61, etc.:—compare the Advb. usage, below Demosthenes Orator
__C WITH ACCU Sophocles Tragicus, it expresses motion or direction towards an object:
__C.I of Place, towards, to, with Verbs of Motion, ἰέναι π. Ὄλυμπον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.420 ; ἰέναι π. δώματα, etc., Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.288, etc.; ἰέναι π. ἠῶ τ᾽ ἠέλιόν τε Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 12.239; φέρειν προτὶ ἄστυ, ἄγειν προτὶ Ἴλιον, etc., 13.538, 657, etc.; ἄγεσθαιπρὸς οἶκον, ἐρύεσθαι ποτὶ Ἴλιον, 9.147, 18.174; ὠθεῖν, δίεσθαι προτὶ ἄστυ, 16.45, 15.681, etc. ; ῥίπτασκε ποτὶ νέφεα Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.374; βαλεῖν ποτὶ πέτρας 12.71; κυλινδόμενα προτὶ χέρσον 9.147 ; ἀπῆλθε πρὸς ἑαυτόν returned to his home, LXX.Num.24.25 ; κληθῆναι π. τὸ δεῖπνον (rarer than ἐπὶ δεῖπνον) Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Cat.Ma.” 3.
__C.I.2 with Verbs implying previous motion, upon, against, π. τεῖχος, π. κίονα ἐρείσας, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 22.112, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.66; ἅρματα.. ἔκλιναν π. ἐνώπια Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 8.435; ἔγχος ἔστησε π. κίονα Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 1.127; ποτὶ τοῖχον ἀρηρότες 2.342; ποτὶ βωμὸν ἵζεσθαι 22.334; πρὸς γοῦνα καθέζετό τινος 18.395; π. ἄλλοτ᾽ ἄλλον πημονὴ προσιζάνει Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 278; τὰ πολλὰ πατρὸς π. τάφον κτερίσματα Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 931 ; χῶρον π. αὐτὸν τόνδ᾽ uncertain in prev. author “Ph.” 23; later, ἔστη π. τὸν στῦλον LXX.2Ki.23.3; ὁ ὄχλος π. τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν NT.Mark.4.1 +NT; π. ὑμᾶς παραμενῶ with you, NT.1Cor.16.6; ἐκήδευσαν τὸν.. πατέρα.. π. τοὺς λοιποὺς συγγενεῖς beside, Supp.epigram 6.106 (from Cotiaeum).
__C.I.2.b of addition, ποὶ τὰν στάλαν ποιγραψάνσθω τάδε “SIG” 56.46 (Argos, 5th c.BC) ; ἵππον προσετίθει πρὸς τοὔνομα Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 63, compare Herodotus Historicus 6.125, Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 1.5.6, Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 33c, Aristoteles Philosophus “Rhetorica” 1359b28 ; προσεδαπάνησε π. τὸ μερισθὲν αὐτῷ εἰς τὸ ἔλαιον ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων over and above the sum allotted to him, “IG” 22.1227.9 ; προσετέθη π. τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ was gathered to his people, LXX.Gen.49.33.
__C.I.3 with Verbs of seeing, looking, etc., towards, ἰδεῖν π. τινά Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 12.244, al. ; ὁρᾶν, ἀποβλέπειν π. τι or τινά, Aeschylus Tragicus “Supplices” 725, Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 291, etc.; ἀνταυγεῖ π. Ὄλυμπον Empedocles Poeta Philosophus 44 ; στάντε ποτὶ πνοιήν so as to face it, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.622 (similarly, πέτονται πρὸς τὸ πνεῦμα against the wind, Aristoteles Philosophus “Historia Animalium” 597a32) ; κλαίεσκε π. οὐρανόν cried to heaven, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 8.364: frequently of points of the compass, π. ζόφον κεῖσθαι lie towards the West, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 9.26; ναίειν π. ἠῶ τ᾽ ἠέλιόν τε 13.240; στάντα π. πρώτην ἕω Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 477 ; so in Prose, π. ἠῶ τε καὶ ἡλίου ἀνατολάς Herodotus Historicus 1.201, compare 4.40; π. βορέην τε καὶ νότον prev. author 2.149; also ἀκτὴ π. Τυρσηνίην τετραμμένη τῆς Σικελίης prev. author 6.22 (see. above Aeschylus Tragicus 1.2) ; π. ἥλιον facing the sun, and so, in the sunlight, Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 772 ; so π. λύχνον by lamplight, prev. author “Pax” 692, Julianus Imperator “Epistulae” 4; π. τὸ λύχνον Hipponax Iambographus 22 Diehl, compare Aristoteles Philosophus “Meteorologica” 375a27; πὸτ τὸ πῦρ Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 751; πρὸς τὸ πῦρ Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 372d, compare Aristoteles Philosophus “Problemata” 870a21 ; π. φῶς in open day, Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 640 ; but, by torch-light, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.237a.
__C.I.4 in hostile sense, against, π. Τρῶας μάχεαι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 17.471; ἐστρατόωνθ᾽.. π. τείχεα Θήβης 4.378 ; π. δαίμονα against his will, 17.98; βεβλήκει π. στῆθος 4.108; γούνατ᾽ ἐπήδα π. ῥόον ἀΐσσοντος 21.303; χρὴ π. θεὸν οὐκ ἐρίζειν Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 2.88; π. τοὐμὸν σπέρμα χωρήσαντα Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 304; ἐπιέναι π. τινάς Thucydides Historicus 2.65; ὅσα ἔπραξαν οἱ Ἕλληνες π. τε ἀλλήλους καὶ τὸν βάρβαρον prev. author 1.118; ἀγωνίζεσθαι π. τινά Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 579c; ἀντιτάττεσθαι π. πόλιν Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 3.1.18 : also in argument, in reply to, ταῦτα π. τὸν Πιττακὸν εἴρηται Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 345c ; and so in the titles of judicial speeches, πρός τινα in reply to, less strong than κατά τινος against or in accusation, Demosthenes Orator 20 at Title Page, etc.; μήτε π. ἐμὲ μήτε κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ δίκην εἶναι Isaeus Orator 11.34.
__C.I.5 without any hostile sense, π. ἀλλήλους ἔπεα πτερόεντ᾽ ἀγόρευον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 3.155,compare 5.274, 11.403, 17.200 ; π.ξεῖνον φάσθαι ἔπος ἠδ᾽ ἐπακοῦσαι Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 17.584 ; λέγειν, εἰπεῖν, φράζειν π. τινά, Herodotus Historicus 1.8, 90, Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 335, “Nu.” 359; ἀπαγγεῖλαι π. τινάς Aeschylus Tragicus “Choephori” 267; μνησθῆναι π. τινά Lysias Orator 1.19, etc.; ἀμείψασθαι π. τινά Herodotus Historicus 8.60 codices; ἀποκρίνεσθαι π. τινάς Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 632, Thucydides Historicus 5.42 ; ὤμοσε δὲ π. ἔμ᾽ αὐτόν he swore to me, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 14.331: π. sometimes governs the reflexive pronoun, διαλογίζεσθαι π. ὑμᾶς αὐτούς Isaeus Orator 7.45 ; ἀναμνήσθητε, ἐνθυμήθητε π. ὑμᾶς αὐτούς, Isocrates Orator 6.52, 15.60; π. ἐμαυτὸν.. ἐλογιζόμην Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 21d ; μινύρεσθαι, ἄδειν π. ἑαυτόν, Aristophanes Comicus “Ecclesiazusae” 880, 931; ἐπικωκύω.. αὐτὴ π. αὑτήν Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 285.
__C.I.5.b π. σφέας ἔχειν δοκέουσι, i.e. they think they are pregnant, Hippocrates Medicus “περὶ φύσιος παιδίου” 30.
__C.I.6 of various kinds of intercourse or reciprocal action, π... Διομήδεα τεύχε᾽ ἄμειβεν changed arms with Diomedes, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 6.235; ὅσα.. ξυμβόλαια.. ἦν τοῖς ἰδιώταις π. τοὺς ἰδιώτας ἢ ἰδιώτῃ π. τὸ κοινόν “IG” 12.116.19 ; σπονδάς, συνθήκας ποιεῖσθαι π. τινά, Thucydides Historicus 4.15, Polybius Historicus 1.17.6; ξυγχωρεῖν π. τινάς Thucydides Historicus 2.59; γίγνεται ὁμολογία π. τινάς prev. author 7.82, compare Herodotus Historicus 1.61; π. τινὰς ξυμμαχίαν ποιεῖς θαι Thucydides Historicus 5.22; π. ἀλλήλους ἡσυχίαν εἶχον καὶ π. τοὺς ἄλλους.. εἰρήνην ἦγον Isocrates Orator 7.51; π. ἀλλήλους ἔχθραι τε καὶ στέργηθρα Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 491; also σαίνειν ποτὶ πάντας Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 2.82, compare “O.” 4.6; παίζειν πρός τινας Euripides Tragicus “Hercules Furens” 952, etc.; ἀφροδισιάζειν π. τινά Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.3.14; ἀγαθὸς γίγνεσθαι π. τινά Thucydides Historicus 1.86; εὐσεβὴς π. τινὰς πέλειν Aeschylus Tragicus “Supplices” 340 ; διαλέγεσθαι π. τινά converse with.., Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.6.1, Aeschines Orator 2.38,40, 3.219; κοινοῦσθαι π. τινάς Plato Philosophus “Leges” 930c; π. τοὺς οἰκέτας ἀνακοινοῦσθαι περὶ τῶν μεγίστων Theophrastus Philosophus “Characteres” 4.2 ; διαλογίζεσθαι π. τινά balance accounts with.., Demosthenes Orator 52.3, compare “SIG” 241.127 (Delph., 4th c.BC) ; ἃ ἔχει διελόμενος π. τὸν ἀδελφόν “IG” 12(7).55.8 (Amorgos, 4th-3rd c.BC),compare Demosthenes Orator 47.34.
__C.I.6.b in phrases of the form ἡ π. τινὰ εὔνοια (ἔχθρα, etc.), π. sometimes means towards, as ἡ π. αὑτοὺς φιλία the affection of their wives towards or for them, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 3.1.39; ἡ π. ὑμᾶς ἔχθρα prev. author “HG” 3.5.10; ἡ ἀπέχθεια ἡ π. τοὺς πλουσίους Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1305a23; τὴν π. τοὺς τετελευτηκότας εὔνοιαν ὑπάρχουσαν Demosthenes Orator 18.314, compare “SIG” 352.13 (Ephesus, 4th-3rd c.BC), al. ; φυσικαὶ τοκέων στοργαὶ π. τέκνα ποθεινά “IG” 12(5).305.13 (from Paros) : but sometimes at the hands of, ἡ π. τὸ θεῖον εὐμένεια the favour of the gods, Thucydides Historicus 5.105 ; φθόνος τοῖς ζῶσι π. τὸ ἀντίπαλον jealousy is incurred by the living at the hands of their rivals, prev. author 2.45 ; τὴν ἀπέχθειαν τὴν π. Θηβαίους.. τῇ πόλει γενέσθαι the hostility incurred by Athens at the hands of the Thebans, Demosthenes Orator 18.36, compare 6.3, 19.85 ; τῇ φιλίᾳ τῇ π. τὸν τετελευτηκότα the friendship with (not 'affection for') the deceased, Isaeus Orator 1.17, compare Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 21c, 28a, Isocrates Orator 15.101, 19.50, Lycurgus Orator 135, Dinarchus Orator 1.19, etc.; τίνος ὄντος ἐμοὶ π. ὑμᾶς ἐγκλήματο; Lysias Orator 10.23, compare 16.10; τιμώμενος.. διὰ τὴν π. ὑμᾶς πίστιν Dinarchus Orator 3.12, compare Lysias Orator 12.67, Demosthenes Orator 20.25 ; τῷ φόβῳ τῷ π. ὑμᾶς the fear inspired by you, prev. author 25.93 ; τῇ π. Ῥωμαίους εὐνοία his popularity with the Romans, Polybius Historicus 23.7.5.
__C.I.7 of legal or other business transacted before a magistrate, witness, etc., τάδε ὁ σύλλογος ἐβουλεύσατο.. π. μνήμονας “SIG” 45.8 (Halic., 5th c.BC),compare “IG” 7.15.1 (Megara, 2nd c.BC); γράφεσθαι αὐτὸν κλοπῆς.. π. τοὺς ἐπιμελητάς prev. work12.65.46; ἀτέλειαν εἶναι αὐτῷ καὶ δίκας π. τὸν πολέμαρχον prev. work153.7; λόγον διδόντων τῶν.. χρημάτων.. π. τοὺς λογιστάς prev. work91.27; before a jury, ἔστι δὲ τούτοις μὲν π. ὑμᾶς ἁγών, ὑμῖν δὲ π. ἅπασαν τὴν πόλιν Lysias Orator 26.14; ἀντιδικῆσαι τῷ παιδὶ.. π. ὑμᾶς Isaeus Orator 11.19 codices (uncertain) ; before a witness to whom an appeal for corroboration is made, prev. author 3.25; ὀμόσαντες πὸ (τ) τὸν θεόν “Schwyzer” 418.11 (from Elis) ; φέρρεν αὐτὸν πὸ (τ) τὸν Δία in the eyes of Zeus, prev. work415.7( prev. passage) ; λαχεῖν πρὸς τὸν ἄρχοντα, γράφεσθαι π. τοὺς θεσμοθέτας, Demosthenes Orator 43.15, Legal prev. work 21.47, compare Aristoteles Philosophus “Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία” 56.6; τοῖς ἐμπόροις εἶναι τὰς δίκας π. τοὺς θεσμοθέτας Demosthenes Orator 33.1 ; θέντων τὰ.. ποτήρια.. π. Πολύχαρμον having pawned the cups with P., “IPE” 12.32 A 15 (Olbia, 3rd c.BC) ; also διαβάλλειν τινὰ π. τοὺς πολλούς Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.2.31, compare Demosthenes Orator 7.33.
__C.II of Time, towards or near a certain time, at or about, ποτὶ ἕσπερα Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 17.191; ποτὶἕσπερον Hesiodus Epicus “Opera et Dies” 552; πρὸς ἑσπέραν Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 328a; ἐπεὶ π. ἑσπέραν ἦν Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 4.3.22; π. ἡμέραν prev. author “An.” 4.5.21; π. ὄρθρον Aristophanes Comicus “Lysistrata” 1089 ; ποτ᾽ ὄρθρον (nisi to be read πότορθρον) Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 5.126, Erinna Lyrica in “PSI” 9.1090.48 + 8 (p.xii); πρὸς ἕω Aristophanes Comicus “Ecclesiazusae” 312 ; π.ἀῶ ἐγρέσθαι, π. ἡμέραν ἐξεγρέσθαι, Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 18.55, Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 223c ; π. γῆρας, π. τὸ γῆρας, in old age, Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 592, Plato Philosophus “Leges” 653a ; π. εὐάνθεμον φυάν in the bloom of life, Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 1.67 ; μέχρις ὅτου π. γυναῖκας ὦσι, i.e.of marriageable age, “IG” 22.1368.41: later, π.τὸ παρόν for the moment, Lucianus Sophista “Ep. Sat.” 28, etc. ; see below 111.5.
__C.III of Relation between two objects,
__C.III.1 in reference to, in respect of, touching, τὰ π. τὸν πόλεμον military matters, equipments, etc., Thucydides Historicus 2.17, etc. ; τὰ π. τὸν βασιλέα our relations to the King, Demosthenes Orator 14.2 ; τὰ π. βασιλέα πράγματα the negotiations with the King, Thucydides Historicus 1.128 ; τὰ π. τοὺς θεούς our relations, i.e. duties, to the gods, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 1441; μέτεστι π. τὰ ἴδια διάφορα πᾶσι τὸ ἴσον.. ἐλευθέρως δὲ τὰ π. τὸ κοινὸν πολιτεύομεν Thucydides Historicus 2.37; οὐδὲν διοίσει π. τὸ γενέσθαι.. in respect of.., Aristoteles Philosophus “Analytica Priora” 24a25, compare Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 111b ; ἕτερος λόγος, οὐ π. ἐμέ that is another matter, and does not concern me, Demosthenes Orator 18.44, compare 21,60, Isocrates Orator 4.12 ; τῶν φορέτρων ὄντων π. ἐμέ freightage shall be my concern, i.e. borne by me, “PAmh.” 91.18 (2nd c.AD) ; π. τοῦτον ἦν ἡ τῶν διαφόρων πρᾶξις LXX.2Mac.4.28 ; ἐὰν.. βοᾷ καὶ σχετλιάζῃ μηδὲν π. τὸ πρᾶγμα, nihil ad rem, Demosthenes Orator 40.61 ; οὐδὲν π. τὸν Διόνυσον Prov. cited in Polybius Historicus 39.2.3, 1Suidas Legal icographus ; οὐδὲν αὐτῷ π. τὴν πόλιν ἐστίν he owes no reckoning to the State, Demosthenes Orator 21.44; λόγος ἐστὶν ἐμοὶ π. Ἀθηναίους Philonides Comicus 1 Demosthenes Orator; π. Ἰάσονά ἐστιν αὐτῷ περὶ τῆς τιμῆς “PHamb.” 27.8 (3rd c.BC),compare “PCair.Zen.” 150.18 (3rd c.BC) ; ἔσται αὐτῷ π. τὸν Θεόν (i.e. ὁ λόγος) he shall have to reckon with God, “Supp.epigram” 6.188, compare 194, al. (from Eumenia); without αὐτῷ, prev. work236 (from Phrygia) ; ἔσται π. τὴν Τριάδαν “MAMA” 1.168, compare “Supp.epigram” 6.302 (Laodicea Combusta); ἕξει π. τὸν Θεόν prev. work300, al. ( prev. passage); ἕξει π. τὴν ἐωνίαν κρίσιν prev. work4.733 (from Eukhaita), compare 6.841 (from Cyprus) ; π. πολλοὺς ἔχων ἀγωνιστάς 1Suidas Legal icographus see at {ὅσα μῦς ἐν πίσσῃ}, cf. NT.2Cor.5.12: with Advbs., ἀσφαλῶς ἔχειν π. τι Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.3.14, etc.; τὸ or τὰ πρός τι, the relative term or terms, Aristoteles Philosophus “Categoriae” 1b25, 6a36, al. ; τὸ π. τι, Pythagoras Philosophus name for two, Theol.Ar. 8 ; π. ἡμᾶς relatively to us, opposed to ἁπλῶς, Aristoteles Philosophus “Analytica Posteriora” 72a1 ; ὀρθὸς πρός or ποτί with accusative, perpendicular to, Archimedes Geometra “περὶ σφαίρας καὶ κυλίνδρου” 2.3, “Spir.” 20; ἁ Δζ ποτὶ τὰν ΑΔ ἀμβλεῖαν ποιεῖ γωνίαν prev. work 16.
__C.III.2 in reference to, in consequence of, πρὸς τοῦτο τὸ κήρυγμα Herodotus Historicus 3.52, compare 4.161 ; π. τὴν φήμην in view of.., prev. author 3.153, compare Thucydides Historicus 8.39; χαλεπαίνειν π. τι prev. author 2.59; ἀθύμως ἔχειν π. τι Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 4.5.4 , etc.: with neuter pronoun, π. τ; wherefore? to what end? Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 766, 1027, etc. ; π. οὐδέν for nothing, in vain, prev. author “Aj.” 1018 ; π. οὐδὲν ἀναγκαῖον unnecessarily, Scholia Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.23; π. ταῦτα therefore, this being so, Herodotus Historicus 5.9, 40, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 915, 992, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 426, etc.; compare οὗτος with v111. 1b.
__C.III.3 in reference to or for a purpose, ἕστηκεν.. μῆλα π. σφαγάς Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 1057 ; χρήσιμος, ἱκανὸς π. τι, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 474d, “Prt.” 322b; ὡς π. τί χρεία; Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1174, compare “OC” 71, “Tr.” 1182; ἕτοιμος π. τι Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 4.5.12; ἱκανῶς ὡς π. τὴν παροῦσαν χρείαν Aristoteles Philosophus “de Caelo” 269b21; ἢν ἀρήγειν φαίνηται π. τὴν σύμπασαν νοῦσον Hippocrates Medicus “περὶ διαίτης ὀξέων” 60 ; ποιεῖ π. ἐπιλημπτικούς is efficacious for cases of epilepsy, Dioscorides (Dioscurides) Medicus 1.6; ἐθέλοντες τὰ π. τὴν νοῦσον ἡδέα μᾶλλον ἢ τὰ π. τὴν ὑγιείην προσδέχεσθαι Hippocrates Medicus “περὶ τέχνης” 7.
__C.III.3.b with a view to or for a future time, ὅπως.. γράμματα δῷ π. ἢν ἂν ἡμέραν ἑκάτεροι παραγίνωνται “SIG” 679.62 (Senatus consultum, 2nd c.BC) ; θαυμάζεται τὰ Περικλέους ἔργα π. πολὺν χρόνον ἐν ὀλίγῳ γενόμενα Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Pericles” 13.
__C.III.3.c ={πρός} Bacchylides Lyricus 11, ἐγίνετο π. ἀναζογήν Polybius Historicus 3.92.8; ὄντων π. τὸ κωλύειν prev. author 1.26.3, compare 1.29.3, al., Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Nicias” 5.
__C.III.4 in proportion or relation to, in comparison with, κοῖός τις δοκέοι ἀνὴρ εἶναι π. τὸν πατέρα Κῦρον Herodotus Historicus 3.34; ἔργα λόγου μέζω π. πᾶσαν χώρην prev. author 2.35; π. πάντας τοὺς ἄλλους prev. author 3.94, 8.44; πολλὴν ἂν οἶμαι ἀπιστίαν τῆς δυνάμεως.. π. τὸ κλέος αὐτῶν εἶναι Thucydides Historicus 1.10, compare Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 2.88, Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 327d, 328c, “Phd.” 102c, etc. ; π. τὰς μεγίστας καὶ ἐλαχίστας ναῦς τὸ μέσον σκοπεῖν the mean between.., Thucydides Historicus 1.10; τὸ κάλλιστον τῶν ἔργων π. τὸ αἴσχιστον συμβαλεῖν Lycurgus Orator 68; ἓν π. ἓν συμβάλλειν Herodotus Historicus 4.50; also ἔχεις π. τὰ ἔτη μέλαιναν τὴν τρίχα Theophrastus Philosophus “Characteres” 2.3; ἐνδεεστέρως ἢ π. τὴν ἐξουσίαν Thucydides Historicus 4.39: also of mathematical ratio, οἷος ὁ πρῶτος (i.e. ὅρος) ποτὶ τὸν δεύτερον, καὶ ὁ δεύτερος ποτὶ τὸν τρίτον Archytas Tarentinus Philosophus 2, compare Philolaus Philosophus 11, Plato Philosophus “Timaeus” 36b, Aristoteles Philosophus “Rhetorica” 1409a4, al., Euclides Geometra 5 “Def.” 4, etc. ; πρὸς παρεὸν.. μῆτις ἀέξεται ἀνθρώποισι in proportion to the existing (physical development), Empedocles Poeta Philosophus 106: also of price, value, πωλεῖσθαι δὶς π. ἀργύριον sells twice against or relatively to silver, i.e. for twice its weight in silver, Theophrastus Philosophus “Historia Plantarum” 9.6.4; πωλεῖται ὁ σταθμὸς αὐτοῦ π. διπλοῦν ἀργύριον Dioscorides (Dioscurides) Medicus 1.19 ; ἡ μαργαρῖτις λίθος πωλεῖται.. π. χρυσίον for its weight in gold, Androsthenes cited in Athenaeus Epigrammaticus 3.93b: metaph., π. ἀρετήν Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 69a ; ὅπως π. τὰς τιμὰς τῶν κριθῶν τὰ ἄλφιτα πωλήσουσι on the basis of the price of barley, Aristoteles Philosophus “Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία” 51.3 ; ἐξέστω αὐτοῦ ἀπογραφὴ τῆς οὐσίας π. τοῦτο τὸ ἀργύριον Ἀθηναίων τῷ βουλομένῳ property equal in value to this silver, “IG” 22.1013.14, compare “PHib.” 1.32.9 (3rd c.BC), “IG” 5(1).1390.78 (Andania, 1st c.BC) ; τῶν ἐγγύων τῶν ἐγγυωμένων π. αὐτὰ τὰ κτήματα “SIG” 364.42 (Ephesus, 3rd c.BC) ; θέντων τὰ ποτήρια π. χρυσοῦς ἑκατόν “IPE” 12.32 A 16 (Olbia, 3rd c.BC) ; τοὺς ἀπαγομένους εἰς φυλακὴν π. τὰ χρέα imprisoned for debt, Polybius Historicus 38.11.10, compare 1.72.5, 5.27.4, 5, 7, 5.108.1, “PTeb.” 707.9 (2nd c.BC) ; τοὺς π. καταδίκας ἐκπεπτωκότας Polybius Historicus 25.3.1, compare “SIG” 742.31 (Ephesus, 1st c.BC) ; ἐγδίδομεν τὸ ἔργον.. π. χαλκόν “IG” 7.3073.6 (Lebad., 2nd c.BC),compare “PSI” 5.356.7 (3rd c.BC), “PTeb.” 825 (a). 16 (2nd c.BC), “Sammelb.” 5106.3 (2nd c.BC) ; οἷον π. ἀργύριον τὴν δόξαν τὰς ψυχὰς ἀποδιδόμενοι Julianus Imperator “Orationes” 1.42b ; π. ἅλας ἠγορασμένος, i.e. 'dirt cheap', Menander Comicus 828 (also π. ἅλα δειπνεῖν καὶ κύαμον, i.e. dine frugally, take pot-luck, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.684f); so ἡδονὰς π. ἡδονὰς.. καταλλάττεσθαι Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 69a ; of measurements of time by the flow from the clepsydra, π. ἕνδεκα ἀμφορέας ἐν διαμεμετρημένῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ κρίνομαι Aeschines Orator 2.126, compare Aristoteles Philosophus “Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία” 67.2, 3, 69.2; λεγέσθω τᾶς δίκας ὁ μὲν πρᾶτος λόγος ἑκατέροις ποτὶ χόας δεκαοκτώ “SIG” 953.17 (Calymna, 2nd c.BC); λεξάντων πρὸς τὴν τήρησιν τοῦ ὕδατος prev. work683.60 (Olympia, 2nd c.BC) ; π. κλεψύδραν Eub.p.182 K., Epinicus Comicus 2; π. κλεψύδρας Aristoteles Philosophus “Poetica” 1451a8; π. ὀλίγον ὕδωρ ἀναγκαζόμενος λέγειν Demosthenes Orator 41.30 ; hence later, π. ὀλίγον for a short time, ἐπανεῖναι π. ὀλίγον τὴν πολιορκίαν Josephus Historicus “Bellum Judaicum” 5.9.1, compare Alexander Aphrodisiensis Philosophus “in Aristotelis Topicorum libros octo commentaria - pars” 560.2, Heliodorus Scriptor Eroticus 2.19, “POxy” 67.14 (4th c.AD), Oribasius Medicus “fragment” 116, “Geoponica” 4.15.8 ; π.ὀλίγον καιρόν, χρόνον, Antyllus Medicus cited in Oribasius Medicus 9.24.26, Paulus Aegineta Medicus Prooem.; π. ὀλίγον ἐστὶ τὸ ζῆν poetical in “Mus.Script.” p.452 von Jan; μήτηρ δ᾽ ἦν π. μικρόν “Sammelb.” 7288.4 (from Ptolemaic) ; π. βραχύ Julianus Imperator “Orationes” 1.47b (but π. βραχὺ παρηβηκυίας (by) a little past their best, “Geoponica” 4.15.3); π. βραχὺν καιρόν Iamblichus Philosophus “Protrepticus” 21. κα; π. τὸ ἀκαρές Porphyrius Tyrius Philosophus “ad Gaurum - Abh. Berl. Akad.” 3.3; π. μίαν ἢ δευτέραν ἡμέραν Dioscorides (Dioscurides) Medicus 2.101, compare Soranus Medicus 1.56; π. δύο ἡμέρας ἐκοίμησα ἐκεῖ “BGU” 775.8 (2nd c.AD) ; π.μόνην τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἡμέραν “Sammelb.” 7399 (2nd c.AD),compare Marcus Antoninus Imperator 12.4; προστιμάσθω π. χρόνον μὴ εἰσελθεῖν ὅσον ἂν δόξῃ “IG” 22.1368.89.
__C.III.5 in or by reference to, according to, in view of, π. τὸ παρεὸν βουλεύεσθαι Herodotus Historicus 1.20, compare 113, Thucydides Historicus 6.46, 47, “IG” 22.1.20, etc.; π. τὴν παροῦσαν ἀρρωστίαν Thucydides Historicus 7.47; ἵνα π. τὸν ὑπάρχοντα καιρὸν ἕκαστα θεωρῆτε Demosthenes Orator 18.17, compare 314, etc.; εἴ τι δεῖ τεκμαίρεσθαι π. τὸν ἄλλον τρόπον prev. author 27.22 ; τοῖς π. ὑμᾶς ζῶσι those who live with your interests in view, prev. author 19.226; ἐλευθέρου τὸ μὴ π. ἄλλον ζῆν Aristoteles Philosophus “Rhetorica” 1367a32; π. τοῦτον πάντ᾽ ἐσκόπουν, π. τοῦτον ἐποιοῦντο τὴν εἰρήνην Demosthenes Orator 19.63 ; τὸ παιδεύεσθαι π. τὰς πολιτείας suitably to them, Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1310a14 ; ὁρῶ.. ἅπαντας π. τὴν παροῦσαν δύναμιν τῶν δικαίων ἀξιουμένους according to their power, Demosthenes Orator 15.28; π. τὰς τύχας γὰρ τὰς φρένας κεκτήμεθα according to.., Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 701 ; πὸς τὰς συνθέσις in accordance with the agreements, “IG” 5(2).343.41,60 (Orchom. 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus) ; τὸν δικαστὰν ὀμνύντα κρῖναι πορτὶ τὰ μωλιόμενα having regard to the pleadings, “Leg.Gort.” 5.44 , compare 9.30; αἱ ἀρχαὶ.. πρὸς τὰ κατεσκευασμένα σύμβολα σηκώματα ποιησάμεναι after making weights and measures in accordance with, or by reference to, the established standards, “IG” 22.1013.7 ; π. τὰ στάθμια τὰ ἐν τῷ ἀργυροκοπίῳ as measured by the weights in the mint, prev. work 30,compare “PAmh.” 43.10 (2nd c.BC) ; Εόλων ἐποίησε σταθμὰ π. τὸ νόμισμα made (trade-) weights on the basis of (i.e. proportional to) the coinage, Aristoteles Philosophus “Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία” 10.2; ὀρθὸν π. τὸν διαβήτην “IG” 22.1668.9, compare 95,7.3073.108 (Lebad., 2nd c.BC) ; π. τὸ δικαιότατον in accordance with the most just principle, Dio Cassius Historicus “fragment” 104.6.
__C.III.6 with the accompaniment of musical instruments, π. κάλαμον Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 10(11).84 ; π. αὐλόν or τὸν αὐλόν, Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 346, Xenophon Historicus “Symposium” 6.3, etc.; π. λύραν.. ᾄδειν “SIG” 662.13 (Delos, 2nd c.BC) ; π. ῥυθμὸν ἐμβαίνειν to step in time, Diodorus Siculus Historicus 5.34.
__C.III.7 πρός c.accusative frequently periphrastic for adverb, π. βίαν, = βιαίως, under compulsion, νῦν χρὴ.. τινα π. βίαν πώνην Alcaeus Lyricus 20 (assuming variant); π. βίαν ἐπίνομεν Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 73; τὸ π. βίαν πίνειν ἴσον πέφυκε τῷ διψῆν κακόν Sophocles Tragicus “Fragmenta” 735 ; ἥκω.. π. βίαν under compulsion, Critias Philosophus, Tragicus, Elegiacus 16.10 Demosthenes Orator ; by force, forcibly, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 210, 355, etc. ; οὐ π. βίαν τινός not forced by any one, prev. author “Eu.” 5 (but also, in spite of any one, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 657); π. τὸ βίαιον Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 130 (Lyric poetry); π. τὸ καρτερόν prev. author “Pr.” 214 ; π. ἀλκήν, π. ἀνάγκαν, prev. author “Th.” 498, “Pers.” 569 (Lyric poetry); οὐ διαχωρέεει ἡ γαστὴρ εἰ μὴ π. ἀνάγκην Hippocrates Medicus “προγνωστικόν” 8, 19; π. ἰσχύος κράτος Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 594; π. ἡδονὴν εἶναί τινι Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 494 ; π. ἡδονὴν λέγειν, δημηγορεῖν, so as to please, Thucydides Historicus 2.65, Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 921, Demosthenes Orator 4.38, compare Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 773; οἱ πάντα π. ἡδονὴν ἐπαινοῦντες Aristoteles Philosophus “Ethica Nicomachea” 1126b13; ἅπαντα π. ἡδ. ζητεῖν Demosthenes Orator 1.15, compare 18.4 ; λούσασθαι τὸ σῶμα π. ἡδ. as much or little as one like s, Hippocrates Medicus “γυναικεῖα” 2.133; πίνειν π. ἡδ. Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 176e ; π. τὸ τερπνόν calculated to delight, Thucydides Historicus 2.53 ; π. χάριν so as to gratify, μήτε π. ἔχθραν ποιεῖσθαι λόγον μήτε π. χ. Demosthenes Orator 8.1, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1152; π. χάριν δημηγορεῖν Demosthenes Orator 3.3, etc.: with genitive rei, π. χάριν τινός for the sake of, π. χ. βορᾶς Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 30, compare “Ph.” 1156 (Lyric poetry); π. ἰσχύος χ. by means of, Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 538 ; π. ὀργήν with anger, angrily, Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 369, Thucydides Historicus 2.65, Demosthenes Orator 53.16 (variant); π. ὀργὴν ἐλθεῖν τινι prev. author 39.23, etc. ; π. τὸ λιπαρές importunately, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 1119; π. εὐσέβειαν prev. author “El.” 464 ; π. καιρόν seasonably, prev. author “Aj.” 38, etc.; π. φύσιν prev. author “Tr.” 308 ; π. εὐτέλειαν cheaply, Antiphanes Comicus 226.2 ; π. μέρος in due proportion, Demosthenes Orator 36.32; π. ὀλίγον μέρος “Geoponica” 2.15.1 ; τέτραπτο π. ἰθύ οἱ straight towards him, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 14.403 ; π. ὀρθὰς (i.e. γωνίας (.. τῇ AEB at right angles to, Aristoteles Philosophus “Meteorologica” 373a14, compare Euclides Geometra 1.11, Archimedes Geometra “περὶ σφαίρας καὶ κυλίνδρου” 1.3; π. ὀρθὴν τέμνουσα Aristoteles Philosophus “Meteorologica” 363b2 ; π. ἀχθηδόνα, π. ἀπέχθειαν, Lucianus Sophista “Tox.” 9, “Hist.Conscr.” 38 ; γυνὴ π. ἀλήθειαν οὖσα in truth a woman, a very woman, Athenaeus Epigrammaticus 15.687a, compare Lucianus Sophista “JTr.” 48, “Alex.” 61: with Sup., π. τὰ μέγιστα in the highest degree, Herodotus Historicus 8.20.
__C.III.8 of Numbers. up to, about, Polybius Historicus 16.7.5, etc.: compare πρόσπου.
__D AB Sophocles Tragicus AS adverb., besides, over and above; in Homerus Epicus always π. δέ or ποτὶ δέ, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.307, 10.108, al., compare Herodotus Historicus 1.71, etc.; π. δὲ καί prev. work 164, 207; π. δὲ ἔτι prev. author 3.74; καὶ π. prev. author 7.154, 184, probably in Aeschylus Tragicus “Choephori” 301, etc.; καὶ π. γε Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 110, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 328a, 466e; καὶ.. γε π. Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 73; καὶ δὴ π. Herodotus Historicus 5.67 ; frequently at the end of a second clause, τάδε λέγω, δράσω τε π. Euripides Tragicus “Orestes” 622; ἀλογία.., καὶ ἀμαθία γε π. Plato Philosophus “Meno” 90e, compare Euripides Tragicus “Phoenissae” 610; ἐνενήκοντα καὶ μικρόν τι π. Demosthenes Orator 4.28, compare 22.60.
__E IN COMPOSITION (joined with other words),
__E.I motion towards, as προσάγω, προσέρχομαι, etc.
__E.II addition, besides, as προσκτάομαι, προσδίδωμι, προστίθημι, etc.
__E.III a being on, at, by, or beside: hence, a remaining beside, and metaphorically connexion and engagement with anything, as πρόσειμι, προσγίγνομαι, etc.
__F REMARKS,
__F.1 in poetry πρός sometimes stands after its case and before an attribute, ποίμνας βουστάσεις τε π. πατρός Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 653, compare “Th.” 185, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 178 (Lyric poetry), Euripides Tragicus “Orestes” 94 ; ἄστυ πότι (or ποτὶ) σφέτερον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 17.419, compare Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 4.5.
__F.2 in Homerus Epicus it is frequently separated from its Verb by tmesis.
__F.3 sometimes (in violation of the rule given by Apollonius Dyscolus Grammaticus “de Syntaxi;” 127.8, “Pron.” 42.5) followed by an enclitic pronoun, πρός με Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 292, Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 1055, Demosthenes Orator 18.14 (variant), Menander Comicus 978, “Pk.” 77, “Comica Adespota” 15.25 Demosthenes Orator, 22.68 Demosthenes Orator, etc.
Bronnen

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks ἀπρόσιτος G676 "onbenaderbaar, ontoegankelijk"; Grieks ἔμπροσθεν G1715 "tegenwoordigheid van (in)"; Grieks μετά G3326 "met, na, achter"; Grieks πρό G4253 "pro, voor"; Grieks προσαγορεύω G4316 "spreken tot, aanspreken, groeten"; Grieks προσάγω G4317 "leiden, brengen"; Grieks προσαιτέω G4319 "aalmoezen vragen, bedelen"; Grieks προσαναβαίνω G4320 "omhooggaan"; Grieks προσαναλίσκω G4321 "daarboven ten koste leggen, uitgeven"; Grieks προσαναπληρόω G4322 "aanvulling geven"; Grieks προσανατίθημι G4323 "bovendien opleggen"; Grieks προσαπειλέω G4324 "bedreiging eraan toevoegen"; Grieks προσδαπανάω G4325 "besteden (nog meer)"; Grieks προσδέομαι G4326 "nodig hebben (nog verder)"; Grieks προσδέχομαι G4327 "toelaten, toegang geven tot zichzelf"; Grieks προσδοκάω G4328 "verwachten, uitzien naar, wachten op"; Grieks προσεάω G4330 "toestaan"; Grieks προσεγγίζω G4331 "naderen tot"; Grieks προσεδρεύω G4332 "zitten bij, nauwkeurig letten op"; Grieks προσεργάζομαι G4333 "werken, bijwerken"; Grieks προσέρχομαι G4334 "dichterbij komen, naderen"; Grieks προσεύχομαι G4336 "bidden tot, aanbidden"; Grieks προσέχω G4337 "naderbij brengen"; Grieks προσηλόω G4338 "vastnagelen, vastmaken aan"; Grieks πρόσκαιρος G4340 "wispelturig, grillig, ongedurig, vergankelijk, voorbijgaand"; Grieks προσκαλέομαι G4341 "naderbij roepen, laten komen, oproepen, dagvaarden"; Grieks προσκαρτερέω G4342 "continue, iemand aanhangen"; Grieks προσκεφάλαιον G4344 "hoofdkussen"; Grieks προσκληρόω G4345 "lot toedelen (door het)"; Grieks πρόσκλισις G4346 "partijdigheid"; Grieks προσκολλάω G4347 "vastlijmen, verkleefd zijn aan, gehecht zijn aan"; Grieks προσκόπτω G4350 "stoten, struikelen"; Grieks προσκυλίω G4351 "toerollen"; Grieks προσκυνέω G4352 "aanbidden, kussen (hand), hand kussen, buigen"; Grieks προσλαλέω G4354 "spreken tot"; Grieks προσλαμβάνω G4355 "daarenboven nog, terzijdenemen, apart nemen"; Grieks προσμένω G4357 "behouden, volharden, trouw blijven"; Grieks προσορμίζω G4358 "schip afmeren, afmeren"; Grieks προσοφείλω G4359 "daarenboven schuldig zijn"; Grieks προσοχθίζω G4360 "afkeer, tegenzin hebben, walgen, uitspuwen, toornig zijn"; Grieks πρόσπεινος G4361 "hongerig (heel)"; Grieks προσπήγνυμι G4362 "vastnagelen (aan het kruis)"; Grieks προσπίπτω G4363 "voorover vallen, neervallen"; Grieks προσποιέομαι G4364 "aanspraak maken op, voorwenden, veinzen"; Grieks προσπορεύομαι G4365 "naar iemand toegaan"; Grieks προσρήγνυμι G4366 "breken tegen iets, aanslaan tegen"; Grieks προστάσσω G4367 "toeschrijven, toekennen, verbinden met, gelasten, bevelen, voorschrijven"; Grieks προστίθημι G4369 "zetten op plaatsen bij, ergens aan toevoegen"; Grieks προστρέχω G4370 "rennen naar"; Grieks προσφάγιον G4371 "belegsel"; Grieks προσφέρω G4374 "brengen naar, voorgeleiden"; Grieks προσφιλής G4375 "lieflijk, aangenaam"; Grieks προσφωνέω G4377 "toeroepen, toespreken, dagvaarden"; Grieks πρόσχυσις G4378 "besprenkeling, begieting"; Grieks προσψαύω G4379 "aanraken"; Grieks πρόσωπον G4383 "gezicht, gelaat";

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