G5120 τοῦ
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toý, lidwoord eigenlijk de genitief van G03588;


1) zijn;


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Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

,
  , τό, is, when thus written,
__A demonstrative Pronoun.
__B in Attic dialect, definite or prepositive Article.
__C in Epic dialect, the so-called postpositive Article, = relative Pronoun, ὅς, ἥ, ὅ.—The nominative masculine and feminine singular and plural, ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ, have no accent in codices and most printed books, except when used as the relative; but ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ differ only in writing from ὃ, ἣ, οἳ, α; the nominative forms of the article are said by Hdn.Gr.1.474 to be oxytone, and by Apollonius Dyscolus Grammaticus “de Pronominibus;” 8.7 not to be enclitic. The forms τῶν, τοῖς, ταῖς were barytone (i. e. τὼν, τοὶς, ταὶς) in Aeolic dialect accusative to Aristarchus Grammaticus cited in Apollonius Dyscolus Grammaticus “de Syntaxi;” 51.26. For οἱ, αἱ some dialects (not Cypria, compare “Inscription Cyprian dialect” 135.30H., nor Cretan dialect, compare “Leg.Gort.” 5.28, nor Lesbian, compare Alcaeus Lyricus 81, Sappho Lyrica “Papyrus fragments” in E. Diehl, 5.1) and Homerus Epicus have τοί, ταί (though οἱ, αἱ are also found in Homerus Epicus): other Homeric forms are gen. sg. τοῖο, genitive and dative dual τοῖιν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 18.34, al.: gen. pl. fem. τάων ᾱ, dat. τοῖσι, τῇς and τῇσι, never ταῖσι or ταῖς in Homerus Epicus — In Doric dialect and all other dialects except Attic dialect and Ionic dialect the feminine forms preserve the old ᾱ instead of changing it to η, hence Doric dialect etc. ἁ, τάν, τᾶ; the genitive plural τάων contracts in many dialects to τᾶ; the genitive singular is in many places τῶ, accusative plural τώς, but Cretan dialect, etc., τόνς (“Leg.Gort.” 7.7, al.) or τός ( prev. work3.50, al.) ; in Lesbian Aeolic dialect the accusative plural forms are τοὶς, ταὶς, “IG” 12(2).645 A 13, B 62 ; dative plural τοῖς, ταῖς (or τοὶς, ταὶς, see above), prev. work645 A 8, prev. work1.6 ; ταῖσι as demonstrative, Sappho Lyrica 16. The Attic. Poets also used the Ionic dialect and Ep. forms τοῖσι, ταῖσ; and in Trag. we find τοὶ μέν.., τοὶ δέ.., for οἱ μέν.., οἱ δέ.., not only in Lyric poetry, as Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 584, “Th.” 295, 298; οἱ μέν.. τοὶ δ᾽ Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 1404 (anap.) ; but even in a trimeter, Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 424. In Attic. the dual has usually only one gender, τὼ θεώ (for τὰ θεά) Andocides Orator 1.113 {ὅ}; τὼ πόλεε Foed. cited in Thucydides Historicus 5.23; τὼ ἡμέρα Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.2.11; τὼ χεῖρε prev. author “Mem.” 2.3.18; τοῖν χεροῖν Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 155e; τοῖν γενεσέοιν prev. author “Phd.” 71e; τοῖν πολέοιν Isocrates Orator 4.75 (τά Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 769, Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 424, 484, ταῖν Lysias Orator 19.17, Isaeus Orator 5.16, etc. have been corrected) ; in 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus the form τοῖς functions as genitive dual feminine, μεσακόθεν τοῖς κράναιυν “Schwyzer” 664.8 (Orchom., 4th c.BC): —in Elean and Boeot. ὁ, ἡ (ἁ), τό, with the addition of -ί, ={ὅδε}, ἥδε, τόδε, nom. pl. masc. τυΐ the following men, “Schwyzer” 485.14 (Thespiae, 3rd c.BC), al., compare infr. VIII. 5. (With ὁ, ἁ, cf. Sanskrit demonstrative pronoun sa, sā, Gothic sa, sō, ONorse sá, sú, Old Latin accusative sum, sam (Enn.): —with τό from *τόδ cf. Sanskrit tat (tad), Latin is-tud, Gothic pata: —with τοί cf. Sanskrit te, Lithuanian tĩe, O Euripides Tragicus pá, etc.:—with τάων cf. Sanskrit tāsām, Latin is-tarum:— the origin of the relative ὅς, ἥ, ὅ (which see) is different.)
__A ὁ, ἡ, τό, DEMONSTR. PRONOUN, that, the oldest and in Homerus Epicus the commonest sense: frequently also in Herodotus Historicus (1.86, 5.35, al.) , and sometimes in Trag. (mostly in Lyric poetry, Aeschylus Tragicus “Supplices” 1047, etc.; in trimeters, prev. author “Th.” 197, “Ag.” 7, “Eu.” 174 ; τῶν γάρ.., τῆς γάρ.., prev. author “Supp.” 358, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1082 ; seldom in Attic dialect Prose, except in special phrases, see infr. VI, VII):
__A.I joined with a substantive, to call attention to it, ὁ Τυδεΐδης he—Tydeus' famous son, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.660 ; τὸν Χρύσην that venerable man Chryses, I.II: and so with appellative, Νέστωρ ὁ γέρων N.—thataged man, 7.324 ; αἰετοῦ.. τοῦ θηρητῆρος the eagle, that which is called hunter, 21.252, al. ; also to define and give emphasis, τιμῆς τῆς Πριάμου for honour, namely that of Priam, 20.181 ; οἴχετ᾽ ἀνὴρ ὤριστος a man is gone, and he the best, 11.288, compare 13.433, al.: sometimes with words between the Pron. and Noun, αὐτὰρ ὁ αὖτε Πέλοψ 2.105; τὸν Ἕκτορι μῦθον ἐνίσπες 11.186, compare 703, al. :—different from this are cases like Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.409 αἴ κέν πως ἐθέλῃσιν ἐπὶ Τρώεσσιν ἀρῆξαι, τοὺς δὲ κατὰ πρύμνας τε καὶ ἀμφ᾽ ἅλα ἔλσαι Ἀχαιούς if he would help the Trojans, but drive those back to the ships—I mean the Achaeans, where Ἀχ. is only added to explain τούς, compare 1.472, 4.20, 329, al.
__A.II frequently without a substantive, he, she, it, ὁ γὰρ ἦλθε Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.12, al.
__A.III placed after its Noun, before the Relat. Prons., ἐφάμην σὲ περὶ φρένας ἔμμεναι ἄλλων, τῶν ὅσσοι Λυκίην ναιετάουσι far above the rest, above those to wit who, etc., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 17.172 ; οἷ᾽ οὔ πώ τιν᾽ ἀκούομεν οὐδὲ παλαιῶν, τάων αἳ πάρος ἦσαν.. Ἀχαιαί such as we have not heard tell of yet even among the women of old, those women to wit who.., Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.119, compare Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.332; θάλαμον τὸν ἀφίκετο, τόν ποτε τέκτων ξέσσεν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 21.43, compare 1.116, 10.74: —for the Attic. usage see below
__A.IV before a Possessive pronoun its demonstrative force is sometimes very manifest, φθίσει σε τὸ σὸν μένος that spirit of thine, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 6.407, compare 11.608; but in 15.58, 16.40, and elsewhere it is merely the Art.
__A.V for cases in which the Homeric usage approaches most nearly to the Attic, see below Bacchylides Lyricus near the start
__A.VI ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.. without a substantive, in all cases, genders, and numbers, Homerus Epicus, etc.: sometimes in Opposition, where ὁ μέν properly refers to the former, ὁ δέ to the latter; more rarely ὁ μέν the latter, ὁ δέ the former, Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 359e, Isocrates Orator 2.32,34 : sometimes in Partition, the one.., the other.., etc.—The Noun with it is regularly in genitive plural, being divided by the ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.., into parts, ἠΐθεοι καὶ παρθένοι.., τῶν δ᾽ αἱ μὲν λεπτὰς ὀθόνας ἔχον, οἱ δὲ χιτῶνας εἵατο Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 18.595; τῶν πόλεων αἱ μὲν τυραννοῦνται, αἱ δὲ δημοκρατοῦνται, αἱ δὲ ἀριστοκρατοῦνται Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 338d, etc. : but frequently the Noun is in the same case, by a kind of apposition, ἴδον υἷε Δάρητος, τὸν μὲν ἀλευάμενον τὸν δὲ κτάμενον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.28, compare Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 12.73, etc. : so in Trag. and Attic dialect, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 22, etc.; πηγὴ ἡ μὲν εἰς αὐτὸν ἔδυ, ἡ δὲ ἔξω ἀπορρεῖ Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 255c ; if the Noun be collective, it is in the genitive singular, ὁ μὲν πεπραμένος ἦν τοῦ σίτου, ὁ δὲ ἔνδον ἀποκείμενος Demosthenes Orator 42.6: sometimes a Noun is added in apposition with ὁ μέν or ὁ δέ, ὁ μὲν οὔτασ᾽ Ἀτύμνιον ὀξέϊ δουρὶ Ἀντίλοχος.., Μάρις δὲ.. Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 16.317 - 19, compare 116; τοὺς μὲν τὰ δίκαια ποιεῖν ἠνάγκασα, τοὺς πλουσίους, τοὺς δὲ πένητας κτλ. Demosthenes Orator 18.102, compare Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 501a, etc.
__A.VI.2 when a negative accompanies ὁ δέ, it follows δέ, e.g. τὰς γοῦν Ἀθήνας οἶδα τὸν δὲ χῶρον οὔ Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 24; τὸν φιλόσοφον σοφίας ἐπιθυμητὴν εἶναι, οὐ τῆς μὲν τῆς δ᾽ οὔ, ἀλλὰ πάσης Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 475b; οὐ πάσας χρὴ τὰς δόξας τιμᾶν, ἀλλὰ τὰς μὲν τὰς δ᾽ οὔ· οὐδὲ πάντων, ἀλλὰ τῶν μὲν τῶν δ᾽ οὔ prev. author “Cri.” 47a, etc.
__A.VI.3 ὁ μέν τις.., ὁ δέ τις.. is used in Prose, when the Noun to which ὁ refers is left indefinite, ἔλεγον ὁ μέν τις τὴν σοφίαν, ὁ δὲ τὴν καρτερίαν.., ὁ δέ τις καὶ τὸ κάλλος Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 3.1.41; νόμους.. τοὺς μὲν ὀρθῶς τιθέασιν τοὺς δέ τινας οὐκ ὀρθῶς Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 339c, compare “Phlb.” 13c.
__A.VI.4 on τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., or τὰ μέν.., τὰ δέ.., see infr. VIII. 4.
__A.VI.5 ὁ μέν is frequently used without a corresponding ὁ δέ, οἱ μὲν ἄρ᾽ ἐσκίδναντο.., Μυρμιδόνας δ᾽ οὐκ εἴα ἀποσκίδνασθαι Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 23.3, compare 24.722, Thucydides Historicus 8.12, etc.: also followed by ἀλλά, ἡ μὲν γάρ μ᾽ ἐκέλευε.., ἀλλ᾽ ἐγὼ οὐκ ἔθελον Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 7.304 ; by ἄλλος δέ, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 6.147, etc.; τὸν μὲν.., ἕτερον δέ Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 843, etc.; ὁ μέν.., ὃς δέ.. Theognis Elegiacus 205 (variant{οὐδέ}): less frequently ὁ δέ in the latter clause without ὁ μέν preceding, τῇ ῥα παραδραμέτην φεύγων, ὁ δ᾽ ὄπισθε διώκων (for ὁ μὲν φεύγων) Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 22.157; σφραγῖδε.. χρυσοῦν ἔχουσα τὸν δακτύλιον, ἡ δ᾽ ἑτέρα ἀργυροῦν “IG” 22.1388.45, compare μέν Demosthenes Orator III; γεωργὸς μὲν εἷς, ὁ δὲ οἰκοδόμος, ἄλλος δέ τις ὑφαντής Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 369d, compare “Tht.” 181d.
__A.VI.6 ὁ δέ following μέν sometimes refers to the subject of the preceding clause, τοῦ μὲν ἅμαρθ᾽, ὁ δὲ Λεῦκον.. βεβλήκει Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.491; τὴν μὲν γενομένην αὐτοῖσι αἰτίην οὐ μάλα ἐξέφαινε, ὁ δὲ ἔλεγέ σφι Herodotus Historicus 6.3, compare 1.66, 6.9, 133, 7.6 : rare in Attic dialect Prose, ἐπεψήφιζεν αὐτὸς ἔφορος ὤν· ὁ δὲ οὐκ ἔφη διαγιγνώσκειν τὴν βοήν Thucydides Historicus 1.87; ἔμενον ὡς κατέχοντες τὸ ἄκρον· οἱ δ᾽ οὐ κατεῖχον Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 4.2.6: this is different from ὁ δέ in apodosi, see below 7; also from passages in which both clauses have a common verb, see at {ὅ γε} 11.
__A.VI.7 ὁ δέ is frequently used simply in continuing a narrative, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.43, etc. ; also used by Homerus Epicus in apodosi after a relat., see at {ὅδε} III.3.
__A.VI.8 the opposition may be expressed otherwise than by μέν and δέ, οὔθ᾽ ὁ.. οὔθ᾽ ὁ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 15.417; ἢ τοῖσιν ἢ τοῖς Aeschylus Tragicus “Supplices” 439; οὔτε τοῖς οὔτε τοῖς Plato Philosophus “Leges” 701e.
__A.VII the following usages prevailed in Attic dialect Prose,
__A.VII.1 in dialogue, after καί, it was usual to say in nominative singular masculine καὶ ὅ; in the other cases the usual forms of the Article were used (see. ὅς Aeschylus Tragicus II.I and cf. Sanskrit sas, alternatative form of sa); so, in accusative, καὶ τὸν εἰπεῖν Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 174a, compare Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.3.9, etc.; also in Herodotus Historicus, καὶ τὴν φράσαι 6.61, al.
__A.VII.2 ὁ καὶ ὁ such and such, τῇ καὶ τῇ ἀτιμίᾳ Plato Philosophus “Leges” 721b : but mostly in accusative, καί μοι κάλει τὸν καὶ τόν Lysias Orator 1.23, compare Plato Philosophus “Leges” 784d; τὰ καὶ τὰ πεπονθώς Demosthenes Orator 21.141, compare 9.68; τὸ καὶ τό prev. author 18.243 ; ἀνάγκη ἄρα τὸ καὶ τό it must then be so and so, Aristoteles Philosophus “Rhetorica” 1401a4, compare 1413a22 ; but τὰ καὶ τά now one thing, now another, of good and bad, τὸν δ᾽ ἀγαθὸν τολμᾶν χρὴ τά τε καὶ τὰ φέρειν Theognis Elegiacus 398, compare Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 5.55, 7.20, al.; τῶν τε καὶ τῶν καιρόν prev. author “O.” 2.53 ; so πάντα τοῦ μετρίου μεταβαλλόμενα ἐπὶ τὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τά, of excess and defect, Hippocrates Medicus “περὶ διαίτης ὀξέων” 46; compare Aeschylus Tragicus VI.8.
__A.VIII absolutely usages of single cases,
__A.VIII.1 feminine dative τῇ, of Place, there, on that spot, here, this way, that way, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.752, 858, al.: followed by ᾗ, 13.52 , etc.: also in Prose, τὸ μὲν τῇ, τὸ δὲ τῇ Xenophon Historicus “Respublica Atheniensium” 2.12.
__A.VIII.1.b with a notion of motion towards, that way, in that direction, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 10.531, 11.149, 12.124; τῇ ἴμεν ᾗ.. 15.46; δελφῖνες τῇ καὶ τῇ ἐθύνεον ἰχθυάοντες Hesiodus Epicus “Scutum Herculis” 210: —only poetry
__A.VIII.1.c of Manner, τῇ περ τελευτήσεσθαι ἔμελλεν in this way, thus, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.510.
__A.VIII.1.d repeated, τῇ μέν.., τῇ δέ.., in one way.., in another.., or partly.., partly.., Euripides Tragicus “Orestes” 356, Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 211a, etc.: without μέν, τῇ μᾶλλον, τῇ δ᾽ ἧσσον Parmenides Poeta Philosophus 8.48.
__A.VIII.1.e relative, where, by which way, only Epic dialect, as Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 12.118, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.229.
__A.VIII.2 neuter dative τῷ, therefore, on this account, frequently in Homerus Epicus, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.418, 2.254, al. (see. below): also in Trag., Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 239, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 510 (Lyric poetry); in Prose, τῷ τοι.. Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 179d, “Sph.” 230b.
__A.VIII.2.b thus, so, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.373, 13.57, etc.: it may also, especially when εἰ precedes, be translated, then, if this be so, on this condition, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 1.239, 3.224, 258, al., Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 29.11.—In Homerus Epicus the true form is probably τῶ, as in codex A, or τώ,compare Apollonius Dyscolus Grammaticus “de Adverbiis;” 199.2.
__A.VIII.3 neuter accusative τό, wherefore, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 3.176, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 8.332, al., Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 142 (Lyric poetry) ; also τὸ δέ absolutely, but the fact is.., Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 23a, “Men.” 97c, “Phd.” 109d, “Tht.” 157b, “R.” 340d, “Lg.” 967a ; even when the τό refers to what precedes, the contrast may lie not in the thing referred to, but in another part of the sentence (compare above VI. 6), τὸ δ᾽ ἐπὶ κακουργίᾳ.. ἐπετήδευσαν Thucydides Historicus 1.37; τὸ δὲ.. ἡμῖν μᾶλλον περιέσται prev. author 2.89 ; φασὶ δέ τινες αὐτὸν καὶ τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν γεγονέναι· τὸ δὲ οὐκ ἦν but he was not, Nicolaus Damascenus Historicus 58J.
__A.VIII.4 τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., partly.., partly.., or on the one hand.., on the other.., Thucydides Historicus 7.36, etc., compare Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.46 ; more frequently τὰ μέν.., τὰ δέ.., Herodotus Historicus 1.173, Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 534, etc.; also τὰ μέν τι.., τὰ δέ τι.. Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 4.1.14; τὸ μέν τι.., τὸ δέ τι.. Lucianus Sophista “Macr.” 14; τὰ μέν.., τὸ δὲ πλέον.. Thucydides Historicus 1.90: sometimes without τὸ μέν.. in the first clause, τὸ δέ τι prev. author 1.107, 7.48: rarely of Time, τὰ μὲν πολλὰ.., τέλος δέ several times.. and finally, Herodotus Historicus 3.85.
__A.VIII.5 of Time, sometimes that time, sometimes this (present) time, συνμαχία κ᾽ ἔα ἑκατὸν ϝέτεα, ἄρχοι δέ κα τοΐ (where it is possible, but not necessary, to supply ϝέτος) “SIG” 9.3 (Olympia, 6th c.BC): so with Preps., ἐκ τοῦ, Ep. τοῖο, from that time, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.493, 15.601.
__A.VIII.5.b πρὸ τοῦ, sometimes written προτοῦ, before this, aforetime, Herodotus Historicus 1.103, 122, 5.55, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 1204, Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 5, etc.; ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ χρόνῳ Thucydides Historicus 1.32, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Eumenides” 462; τὸ πρὸ τοῦ Diodorus Siculus Historicus 20.59.
__A.VIII.5.c in Thess. Prose, ὑππρὸ τᾶς yesterday, τὰ ψαφίσματα τό τε ὑππρὸ τᾶς γενόμενον καὶ τὸ τᾶμον the decree which was passed yesterday (literal before this day), and to-day's, “IG” 9(2).517.43 (Larissa, 3rd c.BC).
__A.VIII.6 ἐν τοῖς is frequently used in Prose with Superlatives, ἐν τοῖσι θειότατον a most marvellous thing, Herodotus Historicus 7.137 ; ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι the very first, Thucydides Historicus 1.6, etc. ; ἐν τοῖσι πρῶτος (πρώτοις codices) Pherecrates Comicus 145.4 ; Ζεὺς Ἔρωτά τε καὶ Ἀνάγκην ἐν τοῖς πρῶτα ἐγέννησεν first of all, Aristides Rhetor “Orationes” 43(1).16, compare 37(2).2: when used with fem. Nouns, ἐν τοῖς remained without change of gender, ἐν τοῖς πλεῖσται δὴ νῆες the greatest number of ships, Thucydides Historicus 3.17; ἐν τοῖς πρώτη ἐγένετο (i.e. ἡ στάσις) prev. work 82 : also with adverbs, ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα prev. author 8.90, Plato Philosophus “Crito” 52a, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.74e, 421d, 723e, “Brut.” 6, 11, al., Pausanias Periegeta 1.16.3, etc.; ἐν τοῖς χαλεπώτατα Thucydides Historicus 7.71; τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα μελάγγειον οὖσαν Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.364c : in late Prose, also with Positives, ἐν τοῖς παράδοξον Aristides Rhetor “Orationes” 48(24).47 codices; with πάνυ, ἐν τοῖς πάνυ Dionysius Halicarnassensis 1.19, compare 66 (ἐν ταῖς πάνυ f.l. 4.14, 15).
__B ὁ, ἡ, τό, THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, the, to specify individuals: rare in this signification in the earliest Gr., becoming commoner later. In Homerus Epicus the demonstrative force can generally be traced, see above Aeschylus Tragicus I, but the definite Article must be recognized in places like Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.167, 7.412, 9.309, 12.289, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 19.372 : also when joined to an adjective to make it a substantive, αἰὲν ἀποκτείνων τὸν ὀπίστατον the hindmost man, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.178; τὸν ἄριστον 17.80; τὸν δύστηνον 22.59; τὸν προὔχοντα 23.325; τῷ πρώτῳ.., τῷ δευτέρῳ.., etc., prev. work 265s q .; also in τῶν ἄλλων 2.674, al.: with Advs., τὸ πρίν 24.543, al.; τὸ πάρος περ 17.720; τὸ πρόσθεν 23.583 ; also τὸ τρίτον prev. work 733; τὰ πρῶτα 1.6, al. ; τὸ μὲν ἄλλο for the rest, 23.454; ἀνδρῶν τῶν τότε 9.559. —The true Article, however, is first fully established in fifth-century. Attic dialect, whilst the demonstrative usage disappears, except in a few cases, V. Aeschylus Tragicus VI-VIII. —Chief usages, especially in Attic.
__B.I not only with common Appellats., adjectives, and Parts., to specify them as present to sense or mind, but also frequently where we use the Possessive pronoun, τὸ κέαρ ηὐφράνθην Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 5 ; τὴν κεφαλὴν κατεάγην my head was broken, Andocides Orator 1.61, etc. ; τοὺς φίλους ποιούμεθα we make our friends, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 190 ; τὰς πόλεις ἔκτιζον they began founding their cities, Thucydides Historicus 1.12; οὐχ ὑπὲρ τὴν οὐσίαν ποιούμενοι τοὺς παῖδας Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 372b.
__B.I.b omitted with proper nounsand frequently with Appellats. which require no specification, as θεός, βασιλεύς, see at {θεός} I.1, βασιλεύς III; ἐμ πόλει in the Acropolis, “IG” 12.4.1, al.: but added to proper nouns, when attention is to be called to the previous mention of the person, as Thucydides Historicus (3.70) speaks first of Πειθίας and then refers to him repeatedly as ὁ Π. ; compare Θράσυλος in prev. author 8.104, with ὁ Θ. prev. work 105 ; or when the person spoken of is to be specially distinguished, Ζεύς, ὅστις ὁ Ζεύς whoever this Zeus is, Euripides Tragicus “Fragmenta” 480 ; and therefore properly omitted when a special designation follows, as Σωκράτης ὁ φιλόσοφος: seldom in Trag. with proper nouns, save to give peculiar emphasis, like Latin ille, ὁ Λάϊος, ὁ Φοῖβος, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 729, “El.” 35, etc.: later, however, the usage became very common (the Homeric usage of ὁ with a _proper name_ is different, see A.I).
__B.I.c Aristotle says Σωκράτης meaning the historical Socrates, as in “SE” 183b7, “PA” 642a28, al., but ὁ Σωκράτης when he means the Platonic Socrates, as “Pol.” 1261a6, al.: so with other proper nouns, “EN” 1145a21, 1146a21, al.
__B.I.d for Σαῦλος ὁ καὶ Παῦλος, etc., see at {καί} Bacchylides Lyricus 2.
__B.I.2 in a generic sense, where the individual is treated as a type, οἷς ὁ γέρων μετέῃσιν.. λεύσσει Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 3.109; πονηρὸν ὁ συκοφάντης Demosthenes Orator 18.242, etc.
__B.I.2.b frequently with abstract Nouns, ἥ τε ἐλπὶς καὶ ὁ ἔρως Thucydides Historicus 3.45, etc.
__B.I.3 of outstanding members of a class, ὁ γεωγράφος, ὁ κωμικός, ὁ ποιητής, ὁ τεχνικός, see at {γεωγράφος}, κωμικός, ποιητής, τεχνικός.
__B.I.4 with infinitives, which thereby become Substantives, τὸ εἴργειν prevention, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 505b ; τὸ φρονεῖν good sense, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 1348 (anap.), etc.: when the subject is expressed it is put between the Art. and the infinitive, τὸ θεοὺς εἶναι the existence of gods, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 62b ; τὸ μηδένα εἶναι ὄλβιον the fact or statement that no one is happy, Herodotus Historicus 1.86.
__B.I.5 in neuter before any word or expression which itself is made the object of thought, τὸ ἄνθρωπος the word or notion man; τὸ λέγω the word λέγ; τὸ μηδὲν ἄγαν the sentiment 'ne quid nimis', Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 265 (Lyric poetry) ; τὸ τῇ αὐτῇ the phrase τῇ αὐτῇ, Plato Philosophus “Meno” 72e: and so before whole clauses, ἡ δόξα.. περὶ τοῦ οὕστινας δεῖ ἄρχειν the opinion about the question 'who ought to rule', prev. author “R.” 431e ; τὸ ἐὰν μένητε παρ᾽ ἐμοί, ἀποδώσω the phrase 'I will give back, if.. ', Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 5.1.21, compare Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 327c, etc.; τοὺς τοῦ τί πρακτέον λογισμούς Demosthenes Orator 23.148 ; τὸ ὀλίγοι the term few, Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1283b11.
__B.I.6 before relative clauses, when the Article serves to combine the whole relative clause into one notion, τῇ ᾗ φὴς σὺ σκληρότητι the harshness you speak of, Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 435a ; τὸν ἥμερον καρπόν.., καὶ τὸν ὅσος ξύλινος (i.e. καὶ τὸν καρπὸν ὅσος ἂν ᾖ ξύλινος) prev. author “Criti.” 115b; τῶν ὅσοι ἂν.. ἀγαθοὶ κριθῶσιν prev. author “R.” 469b; ἐκ γῆς καὶ πυρὸς μείξαντες καὶ τῶν ὅσα πυρὶ καὶ γῇ κεράννυται prev. author “Prt.” 320d, compare Hyperides Orator “pro Lycophrone” 2; ταύτην τε τὴν αἰτίαν καὶ τὴν ὅθεν ἡ κίνησις Aristoteles Philosophus “Metaphysica” 987a8; τὸν ὃς ἔφη Lysias Orator 23.8: hence the relat., by attraction, frequently follows the case of the Art., τοῖς οἵοις ἡμῖν τε καὶ ὑμῖν, i.e. τοῖς οὖσιν οἷοι ἡμεῖς καὶ ὑμεῖς, Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 2.3.25, etc.
__B.I.7 before Prons.,
__B.I.7.a before the person Prons., giving them greater emphasis, but only in accusative, τὸν ἐμέ Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 166a, “Phlb.” 20b ; τὸν.. σὲ καὶ ἐμέ prev. work 59b; τὸν αὑτόν prev. author “Phdr.” 258a; on ὁ αὐτός, see at {αὐτός} 111.
__B.I.7.b before the interrogative pronoun (both τίς and ποῖος), referring to something before, which needs to be more distinctly specified, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 251, Aristophanes Comicus “Pax” 696; also τὰ τ; because οἷα went before, prev. work 693. Of τίς only the neut. is thus used (see.above): ποῖος is thus used not only in neut. pl., τὰ ποῖ; Euripides Tragicus “Phoenissae” 707; but also in the other genders, ὁ ποῖο; prev. work 1704 ; τῆς ποίας μερίδο; Demosthenes Orator 18.64 ; τοῖς ποίοις..; Aristoteles Philosophus “Physica” 227b1.
__B.I.7.c with τοιοῦτος, τοιόσδε, τηλικοῦτος, etc., the Article either makes the pronoun into a substantive, ὁ τοιοῦτος that sort of person, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 4.2.21, etc. ; or subjoins it to a substantive which already has an Article, τὴν ἀπολογίαν τὴν τοιαύτην Demosthenes Orator 41.13.
__B.I.8 before ἅπας, Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 1.69, Herodotus Historicus 3.64, 7.153 (assuming variant), Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 1224 (Lyric poetry), Demosthenes Orator 18.231, etc. ; also τὸν ἕνα, τὸν ἕνα τοῦτον, Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1287b8, 1288a19: on its usage with ἕκαστος, see entry; and on οἱ ἄλλοι, οἱ πολλοί, etc., see at {ἄλλος} 11.6, πολύς 11.3, etc.
__B.I.9 the Article with the comparative is rare, if ἤ follows, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 313, “OC” 796.
__B.II elliptic expressions:
__B.II.1 before the genitive of a proper name, to express descent, son or daughter, Θουκυδίδης ὁ Ὀλόρου (i.e. υἱός) Thucydides Historicus 4.104 ; Ἑλένη ἡ τοῦ Διός (i.e. θυγάτηρ) Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 470 : also to denote other relationships, e.g. brother, Lysias Orator 32.24, Alciphro Epistolographus 2.2.10 ; ἡ Σμικυθίωνος Μελιστίχη M.the wife of Sophocles Tragicus, Aristophanes Comicus “Ecclesiazusae” 46 ; Κλέαρχος καὶ οἱ ἐκείνου Cl. and his men, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.2.15 ; ὁ τοῦ Ἀντιγένεος the slave of Aeschylus Tragicus, Hippocrates Medicus “περὶ χυμῶν” 20.
__B.II.2 generally, before a genitive it indicates a wider relation, as τὸ τῶν νεῶν, τὸ τῶν Ἑρμῶν, the matter of the ships, the affair of the Hermae, Thucydides Historicus 4.23, 6.60 ; τὰ τοῦ Ἀρριβαίου πράσσειν to promote the interests of Arrhibaeus, prev. author 4.83, compare 6.89, etc. ; τὸ τῆς τύχης,=ἡ τύχη, prev. author 4.18 ; τὰ τῆς τύχης accidents, chance events, prev. work 55 ; τὰ γὰρ φθιτῶν τοῖς ὁρῶσι κόσμος performance of the rites due to the dead befits the living, Euripides Tragicus “Supplices” 78 (Lyric poetry) ; τὰ τῶν θεῶν that which is destined by the gods, Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 498 (Lyric poetry): hence with neut. of Possessive Pron., τὸ ἐμόν, τὸ σόν, what regards me or thee, my or thy business or interests, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 124, “El.” 251, etc. : and with genitive of 3 pers., τὸ τῆσδε Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 48. But τό τινος is frequently also, a man's word or saying, as τὸ τοῦ Σόλωνος Herodotus Historicus 1.86 ; τὸ τοῦ Ὁμήρου as Homer says, Plato Philosophus “Theaetetus” 183e ; also τά τινος so-and-so's house, Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 1432, Demosthenes Orator 54.7, Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 2.76, Herodas Mimographus 5.52, NT.Luke.2.49.
__B.II.3 very frequently with cases governed by Preps.. αἱ ἐκ τῆς Ζακύνθου νῆες the ships from Zacynthus, Thucydides Historicus 4.13; οἱ ἀμφί τινα, οἱ περί τινα, such an one and his followers, see at {ἀμφί} with 1.3, περί with 1.2 ; also τὰ ἐπὶ Θρᾴκης the Thrace-ward district, Thucydides Historicus 1.59, al. ; τὰ ἀπὸ τοῦ καταστρώματος matters on deck, prev. author 7.70 ; τὰ ἀπ᾽ Ἀλκιβιάδου the proposals of Alcibiades, prev. author 8.48 ; τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς τύχης the incidents of fortune, prev. author 2.87, etc.
__B.II.4 on μὰ τόν, μὰ τήν, etc., see at {μά} IV.
__B.II.5 in elliptical phrases, ἐπορευόμην τὴν ἔξω τείχους (i.e. ὁδόν) Plato Philosophus “Lysis” 203a; ἡ ἐπὶ θανάτῳ (i.e. στολή, δέσις), see at {θάνατος}; κατὰ τὴν ἐμήν (i.e. γνώμην), see at {ἐμός} II.4 ; ἡ αὔριον (i.e. ἡμέρα), see at {αὔριον}; ἡ Λυδιστί (i.e. ἁρμονία) Aristoteles Philosophus “Politica” 1342b32, etc.: frequently with Advs., which thus take an adjective sense, as ὁ, ἡ, τὸ νῦν ; ὁ οἴκαδε πλοῦς Thucydides Historicus 1.52; οἱ τότε, οἱ ἔπειτα (i.e. ἄνθρωποι), prev. work 9, 10 , etc.; but τό stands absolutely with Advs. of time and place, when one cannot (as in the preceding instances) supply a substantive, as κἀκεῖσε καὶ τὸ δεῦρο Euripides Tragicus “Phoenissae” 266, compare 315 (Lyric poetry) ; ὁ μὲν τὸ κεῖθεν, ὁ δὲ τὸ κεῖθεν prev. author “Or.” 1412 (Lyric poetry): rarely abs. in gen., ἰέναι τοῦ πρόσω to go forward, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.3.1; τοῦ προσωτάτω δραμεῖν Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 731.
__C as RELATIVE PRONOUN in many dialects; both in nominative singular masculine ὅ, as κλῦθί μοι, ὃ χθιζὸς θεὸς ἤλυθες Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.262, compare 1.300, al.; Ἔρως, ὃ κατ᾽ ὀμμάτων στάζεις πόθον Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 526 (Lyric poetry); Ἄδωνις, ὃ κἠν Ἀχέροντι φιλεῖται Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 15.86 ; ὃ ἐξορύξη he who banishes him, “Schwyzer” 679.12,25 (from Cyprus) ; and in the forms beginning with τ, especially in Homerus Epicus (Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.160, al.), Herodotus Historicus 1.7, al. : also in Ionic dialect Poets, ἐν τῷ κάθημαι Archilochus Lyricus 87.3, compare 7th-6th c.BC(?): Semonides Iambographus 7.3, Anacreon Lyricus 86 (probably), Herodas Mimographus 2.64, al.: frequently in Trag., τῆς Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 1258, “Tr.” 381, 728, Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 883 (anap.); τῷ Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 14; τήν prev. author “OC” 747, “Tr.” 47, “El.” 1144 ; τό prev. author “OT” 1427 ; τῶν prev. work 1379, “Ant.” 1086. —Never in Comedy texts or Attic dialect Prose:—Epic dialect genitive singular τεῦ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 18.192 (assuming variant).
__D CRASIS OF ARTICLE:
__D.a Attic dialect ὁ, ἡ, τό, with ᾰ make ᾱ, as ἁνήρ, ἁλήθεια, τἀγαθόν, τᾄτιο; so οἱ, αἱ, τά, as ἅνδρες, τἀγαθ; also τοῦ, τῷ, as τἀγαθοῦ, τἀγαθῷ: ὁ, τό, οἱ, before e gives ου, οὑξ, οὑπί, οὑμός, τοὔργον, οὑπιχώριοι, etc.; also τοῦ, as τοὐμοῦ, τοὐπιόντο; but ἅτερος, θάτερον ( musical notation), Ionic dialect οὕτερος, τοὔτερον (see. ἕτερος), Attic dialect feminine ἡτέρα, dative θητέρᾳ (see. ἕτερος); τῷ loses the iota, τὠμῷ, τὠπιόντι: ὁ, τό, before ο gives ου, as Οὁδυσσεύς, Οὑλύμπιος, τοὔνομα: ὁ, τό, etc., before αυ gives ᾱυ, αὑτός, ταὐτό, ταὐτῷ (frequently written ἁτός, etc. in Inscrr. and Papyrus); so τὰ αὐτά=ταὐτά, αἱ αὐταί=αὑταί: ἡ before εὐ gives ηὑ, as ηὑλάβεια: τῇ before ἡ gives θη, as θἠμέρᾳ: τὸ before ὑ gives θου, as θοὔδωρ for τὸ ὕδωρ.
__D.b other dialects: in their treatment of crasis these follow the local laws of contraction, hence, e.g., Doric dialect ὡξ from ὁ ἐξ Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 1.65, ὥλαφος from ὁ ἔλαφος prev. work 135 ; Ionic dialect ᾡσυμνήτης from ὁ αἰς- “SIG” 57.45 (Milet., 5th c.BC) ; ὡυτή from ἡ αὐτή 1st c.AD(?): Heraclitus 60, etc.

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks ὁ, ἡ, τό G3588 "de, het, dit, dat, deze"; Grieks τούτου G5127 "toutou";

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