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Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο,
  genitive τούτου, ταύτης, τούτου, etc.: the dual feminine never in Attic dialect, see ὁ, ἡ, τό, near the start:—demonstrative pronoun, this, common from Homerus Epicus downwards
__A ORIGIN and FORMS: οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο probably arose from a reduplication of the demonstrative ὁ, ἡ, τό with insertion of -υ- (= Sanskrit Particle u), e.g. ταῦτα from τα-υ-τα: Doric dialect genitive singular feminine τούτας Philolaus Philosophus 11; nom. pl. τοῦτοι, ταῦται Apollonius Dyscolus Grammaticus “de Syntaxi;” 111.23: the former occurs Sophron Comicus 24, “GDI” 3045 B 6 (from Selinus), “SIG” 339.16 (Rhodes, 3rd c.BC) , etc., the latter is uncertain in Sophron Comicus 97, certain in “SIG” 241 B 117 (Delph., 4th c.BC): in Boeot. all forms begin with οὑτ- , as genitive singular neuter οὕτω “Supp.epigram” 3.359.11 (3rd c.BC) ; accusative singular feminine οὕταν Corinna Lyrica “Supp.” 2.80; acc. pl. neut. οὗτα “SIG” 1185.20 (Tanagra, 3rd c.BC), etc.: gen. pl. fem. Attic. τούτων, Cretan dialect ταυτᾶν “Leg.Gort.” 5.19; neut. ταύτων “Michel” 1334.10 (Elis, 4th c.BC).—In Ion. sometimes written ταότην, ταο̄τα, “SIG” 283.19 (Chios, 4th c.BC), 46.7 (Halic., 5th c.BC), al. —In Attic. οὗτος was frequently strengthened by the _demonstrative_ -ί, οὑτοσί, αὑτηί, τουτί, gen. τουτουί, dat. τουτῳί, acc. τουτονί; plural nominative οὑτοιί, neuter ταυτί, etc., this man here: sometimes a Particle is inserted between the pronoun and -ί, as αὑτηγί for αὑτηί γε, Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 784 ; τουτογί for τουτί γε, prev. author “V.” 781, “Av.” 894, al. ; ταυταγί for ταυτί γε, prev. author “Eq.” 492, “Pax” 1057, al. ; τουτοδί for τουτὶ δέ, prev. author “Pl.” 227 ; τουτουμενί for τουτουὶ μέν, prev. author “Ra.” 965. —In codices the ν ἐφελκυστικόν is sometimes added in the forms οὑτοσίν, οὑτωσίν, and οὑτοσίν is said to be Attic dialect by Apollonius Dyscolus Grammaticus “de Pronominibus;” 59.24, 82.11 . This ι is always long, and a long vowel or diphthong before it becomes short, as αὑτη?~Xί, τουτω?~Xί, οὑτοῐί, Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 201, “Pl.” 44, “Ach.” 40, etc.
__B USAGE in regard to CONCOR Demosthenes Orator οὗτος is frequently used as a pronoun substantive: hence neuter is followed by genitive, κατὰ τοῦτο τῆς ἀκροπόλιος Herodotus Historicus 1.84; εἰς τοῦθ᾽ ὕβρεως ἐλήλυθεν Demosthenes Orator 4.37; εἰς τοῦθ᾽ ἥκεις μανίας prev. author 36.48; ταῦτα τῶν μαθημάτων Plato Philosophus “Euthydemus” 278b: but quite as frequently as adjective, in which case its substantive commonly takes the Article, οὗτος ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ οὗτος.—But the Article is absent,
__B.1 always in Epic dialect Poets (except Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 18.114), οὗτος ἀνήρ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 14.471, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 1.406, etc. : sometimes also in Trag., Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 122 (Lyric poetry), 495, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 406, “OC” 471, 1177: once in an Inscription, τοπεῖα: τούτων τὰ ἡμίσεα τοπείων “IG” 22.1622.135 (4th c.BC).
__B.2 sometimes when the Noun is so specified that the Article is not needed, ἐς γῆν ταύτην.., ἥντινα νῦν Σκύθαι νέμονται Herodotus Historicus 4.8; ταύτας ἃς οἱ πατέρες παρέδοσαν μελέτας Thucydides Historicus 1.85, compare Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 449d, etc.; πατὴρ σὸς οὗτος, ὃν θρηνεῖς ἀεί Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 530.
__B.3 when οὗτος is used in local sense, here, see below with 1.5.
__B.4 when the Noun with which οὗτος agrees stands as its Predicate, αὕτη γὰρ ἦν σοι πρόφασις Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 1034 ; δικαστοῦ αὕτη ἀρετή ἐστι Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 18a: this exception extends to cases in which the Predicate is not so distinctly separated from the Subject, αἰτίαι μὲν αὗται προυγεγένηντο these were the grievances which already existed, Thucydides Historicus 1.66 ; ταύτην φήμην παρέδοσαν this was the report which.., Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 16c: frequently with a Sup., κίνησις αὕτη μεγίστη δὴ.. ἐγένετο this was notably the greatest movement which.., Thucydides Historicus 1.1, compare 3.113: with πρῶτος prev. author 1.55, 98, 6.31, NT.Luke.2.2.
__B.5 when 3rd pers. is used for 2nd pers. to express contempt, οὗτος ἀνήρ, οὑτοσὶ ἀνήρ, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 467b, 489b, etc.
__B.II though οὗτος usually agrees with the Noun that serves as Predicate, it is not rare to find it in the neuter, μανία δὲ καὶ τοῦτ᾽ ἐστί Euripides Tragicus “Bacchae” 305; τοῦτο γάρ εἰσι.. εὔθυναι Demosthenes Orator 19.82, etc. : and in plural, οὐκ ἔστι ταῦτα ἀρχή Aeschines Orator 3.13; ταῦτ᾽ ἐστὶν ὁ προδότης prev. author 2.166 : so with an explanatory clause added, τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν ὁ συκοφάντης, αἰτιᾶσθαι μὲν πάντα ἐξελέγξαι δὲ μηδέν Demosthenes Orator 57.34.
__B.II.2 so also with a Noun in apposition, τούτοισιν μὲν ταῦτα μέλει, κίθαρις καὶ ἀοιδή Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 1.159; τούτου τιμῶμαι, ἐν πρυτανείῳ σιτήσεως Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 36e, compare Euripides Tragicus “Fragmenta” 323.3, etc.
__B.II.3 the neuter also may refer to a masculine or feminine Noun, καρπὸν φορέει κυάμῳ ἴσον: τοῦτο ἐπεὰν γένηται πέπον κτλ. Herodotus Historicus 4.23, compare Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.5.10, etc.
__B.II.4 the neuter is also used of classes of persons, μελιτοπῶλαι καὶ τυροπῶλαι: τοῦτο δ᾽ εἰς ἕν ἐστι συγκεκυφός Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 854, compare Plato Philosophus “Leges” 711a ; or of an abstract fact, οὐκ Ἰοφῶν ζ;—τοῦτο γάρ τοι καὶ μόνον ἔτ᾽ ἐστὶ λοιπὸν ἀγαθόν Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 73.
__B.III with Prons.,
__B.III.1 personal, οὗτος σύ, in local sense, see below
__B.III.2 interrogative, τί τοῦτ᾽ ἔλεξα; what is this that.. ? Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 1173 (Lyric poetry), compare “Ant.” 7 ; ποίοισι τούτοι; for ποῖά ἐστι ταῦτα οἷς ἔχεις ἐλπίδα; prev. author “OC” 388, compare “Ant.” 1049 ; Νέστορ᾽ ἔρειο ὅν τινα τοῦτον ἄγει whom he brings here, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.612.
__B.III.3 with οἷος, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 20.377, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 61c.
__B.III.4 possessive, πατὴρ σὸς οὗτος this father of thine, Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 530, compare Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 7.3.30.
__B.III.5 demonstrative, οὗτος ἐκεῖνος, τὸν σὺ ζητέεις, where ἐκεῖνος is the Predicate, Herodotus Historicus 1.32; τοῦτ᾽ ἔστ᾽ ἐκεῖνο Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 622, compare “Or.” 804; αὐτὸ τοῦτο, see at {αὐτός} I.7 ; τοῦτον τὸν αὐτὸν ἄνδρα this same man, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 128.
__B.III.5.b exceptionally, Διφίλου οὗτος ὅδ᾽ ἐστὶ τύπος “IG” 12(5).300 (from Paros).
__B.III.6 ἄλλος τις οὗτος ἀνέστη another man here, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 20.380.
__B.IV with Numerals, τέθνηκε ταῦτα τρία ἔτη these three years, Lysias Orator 7.10 codices ; στρατείαν ἑνδέκατον μῆνα τουτονὶ ποιεῖται for these eleven months, Demosthenes Orator 8.2, compare 3.4; τριακοστὴν ταύτην ἡμέραν Menander Comicus “Ἐπιτρέποντες” 27; ταύτας τριάκοντα μνᾶς Demosthenes Orator 27.23, compare Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 463b, etc.
__C.I this, to designate the nearer, opposed to ἐκεῖνος, that, the more remote, ταῦτα, like τὰ ἐνταῦθα, things round and about us, earthly things, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 75e (variant) ; compare ὅδε near the start: but οὗτος sometimes indicates that which is not really nearest, but most important, δεῖ.. τὸ βέλτιστον ἀεί, μὴ τὸ ῥᾷστον λέγειν: ἐπὶ ἐκεῖνο μὲν γὰρ ἡ φύσις αὐτὴ βαδιεῖται, ἐπὶ τοῦτο δὲ κτλ. Demosthenes Orator 8.72, compare 51.3 and 18.
__C.I.2 when, of two things, one precedes and the other follows, ὅδε properly refers to what follows, οὗτος to what precedes, οὐκ ἔστι σοι ταῦτ᾽, ἀλλά σοι τάδ᾽ ἔστι Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 787, compare ὅδε III. 2: frequently, however, where there are not two things, οὗτος refers to what follows, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 13.377, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.306, etc. ; οὔκουν.. τοῦτο γιγνώσκεις, ὅτι..; Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 379, etc.
__C.I.3 οὗτος is used emphatic, generally in contempt, while ἐκεῖνος denotes praise, ὁ πάντ᾽ ἄναλκις οὗτος, i.e. Aegisthus, Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 301; τούτους τοὺς συκοφάντας Plato Philosophus “Crito” 45a; so Demosthenes Orator “de Coron.” uses οὗτος of Aeschines, ἐκεῖνος of Philip; but οὗτος is used of Philip, Demosthenes Orator 2.15, 4.3.
__C.I.3.b of what is familiar, τούτους τοὺς πολυτελεῖς χιτῶνας, of the Persians, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.5.8; οἱ τὰς τελετὰς.. οὗτοι καταστήσαντες Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 69c, compare “Men.” 80a ; τὸ θυλακῶδες τοῦτο the familiar bag-like thing, Theophrastus Philosophus “Historia Plantarum” 3.7.3, compare 3.18.11, 4.7.1; οἱ τὰς κόρας ταύτας ὠνούμενοι τοῖς παισίν Dio Chrysostomus Sophista 31.153.
__C.I.4 in Attic dialect law-language, οὗτος is commonly applied to the opponent, whether plaintiff (as in Aeschines Orator 2.130) or defendant (as in prev. author 1.1) ; so, in the political speeches of Demosthenes Orator, οὗτοι are the opposite party, 4.1, 8.7 , etc.; but in the forensic speeches, οὗτοι frequently means the judges, the court, 21.134, 36.47.
__C.I.5 much like an adverb, in local sense (compare ὅδε near the start), τίς δ᾽ οὗτος κατὰ νῆας.. ἔρχεα; who art thou here that comest.. ? Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 10.82 ; frequently in Attic dialect, τίς οὑτοσ; who's this here? Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 1048 ; πολλὰ ὁρῶ ταῦτα πρόβατα I see many sheep here, Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 3.5.9 (as variant): with Pron. of 2 pers., οὗτος σύ ho you! you there! Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 532, 1121, Euripides Tragicus “Hecuba” 1280, etc.: and then οὗτος alone like a voc., οὗτος, τί ποιεῖ; Aeschylus Tragicus “Supplices” 911,compare Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 71, Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 773, Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 240, “Nu.” 220, al. : with a proper name, ὦ οὗτος, Αἴας Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 89; ὦ οὗτος οὗτος, Οἰδίπους prev. author “OC” 1627, compare Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 1364: with voc., βέντισθ᾽ οὗτος Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 5.76:—the fem. is rarer, αὕτη Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 922; αὕτη σύ Aristophanes Comicus “Thesmophoriazusae” 610. —This phrase mostly implies anger, impatience, or scorn.
__C.II simply as antecedent to ὅς, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 2.40, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1180, etc.: frequently following relat. clause, ἅ γ᾽ ἔλαβες,.. μεθεῖναι ταῦτα prev. author “Ph.” 1247, compare 1319, “Ant.” 183, 203, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 469c.
__C.III = τοιοῦτος, οὗτος ἐγὼ ταχυτᾶτι Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 4.26; σὺ τοίνυν οὗτος εὑρέθης Demosthenes Orator 18.282, compare 173.
__C.IV after a parenthesis, the Subject, though already named, is frequently emphatic repeated by οὗτος, οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδὲ Ἀριστέης.., οὐδὲ οὗτος προσωτέρω.. ἔφησε ἀπικέσθαι Herodotus Historicus 4.16, compare 81 (assuming variant), 1.146, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 107d, etc.
__C.V καὶ οὗτος is added to heighten the force of a previous word, ξυνεστῶτες.. ναυτικῷ ἀγῶνι, καὶ τούτῳ πρὸς Ἀθηναίους Thucydides Historicus 4.55, compare Herodotus Historicus 1.147, 6.11, etc.; so οὐδὲ τούτου Aeschines Orator 2.100 ; see infr. VIII.2.
__C.VI repeated, where for the second we should merely say he or it, τοῖσιν τούτου τοῦτον μέλεσιν.. κελαδοῦντες Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 1526, compare Plato Philosophus “Laches” 200d.
__C.VII ταῦτα is used in some special phrases,
__C.VII.1 ταῦτ᾽, ὦ δέσποτα yes Sir (i. e. ἔστι ταῦτα, ταῦτα δράσω, etc.), Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 142, “Pax” 275, compare “Eq.” III; so ταῦτα δή prev. author “Ach.” 815; ταῦτά νυν prev. author “V.” 1008 ; so also ἦν ταῦτα even so, true, Euripides Tragicus “Phoenissae” 417.
__C.VII.2 ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ὑπάρξει so it shall be, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 78a.
__C.VII.3 καὶ ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ταῦτα so much for that, frequently in Attic dialect, as Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 220c.
__C.VII.4 ταῦτα at end of a formula in epitaphs, etc., probably short for ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχει or ὁ βίος ταῦτά ἐστιν, e.g. οὐδὶς (= -εὶς) ἀθάνατος: ταῦτα “IG” 14.420; Προκόπι ταῦτα prev. work1824; χαίρεται (= -τε) ταῦτα prev. work1479, etc.: similarly perhaps in a letter, ἂμ μὴ πέμψῃς, οὐ μὴ φάγω, οὐ μὴ πείνω. ταῦτα “POxy.” 119.15 (2nd-3rd c.AD).
__C.VIII Adverbial usages:
__C.VIII.1 ταῦταabsolutely, therefore, that is why.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.694; ταῦτ᾽ ἄρα Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 90, “Nu.” 319, 335, 394, al., Xenophon Historicus “Symposium” 4.55; ταῦτα δή Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 159, Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 174a; ταῦτ᾽ οὖν Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 550, Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 1358, etc. ; αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἥκω, ἵνα.. Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 310e: τοῦτο is rare in this sense, τοῦτ᾽ ἀφικόμην, ὅπως.. εὖ πράξαιμί τι Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 1005 ; αὐτὸ γὰρ τοῦτο just because of this, Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 204a.
__C.VIII.1.b πρὸς ταῦτα so then, therefore, properly used in indignant defiance, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 992, 1043, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 971, 1115, 1313, “OT” 426, “OC” 455, etc.
__C.VIII.2 καὶ ταῦτα, adding a circumstance heightening the force of what has been said, and that, ἄνδρα γενναῖον θανεῖν, καὶ ταῦτα πρὸς γυναικός Aeschylus Tragicus “Eumenides” 627 : but mostly with a participle, ὅς γ᾽ ἐξέλυσας ἄστυ.., καὶ ταῦθ᾽ ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν οὐδὲν ἐξειδὼς πλέον Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 37, compare Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 704, Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 241e, etc. ; or with a participle omitted, ἥτις.. τὴν τεκοῦσαν ὕβρισεν, καὶ ταῦτα τηλικοῦτος (i.e. οὖσα) Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 614; so καὶ ταῦτα μέντοι Plato Philosophus “Eryxias” 400b.
__C.VIII.2.b καὶ ταῦτα anyhow, no matter what happens (or happened), ἐπεχείρησας, οὐδὲν ὢν καὶ ταῦτα you tried, but were no good anyhow, i.e. try as you might, prev. author “R.” 341c, compare Diodorus Comicus 3.5.
__C.VIII.3 τοῦτο μέν.., τοῦτο δέ.. on the one hand.., on the other.., partly.., partly.., very frequently in Herodotus Historicus, as 1.161, al. ; τοῦτο μέν is sometimes answered by δέ only, 4.76, Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 670, “OC” 440 ; by δὲ αὖ, Herodotus Historicus 7.176 ; by ἔπειτα δέ, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 61 ; by ἀλλά, Demosthenes Orator 22.13 ; by εἶτα, Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 1345 ; by τοῦτ᾽ αὖθις, prev. author “Ant.” 165.
__C.VIII.4 dative feminine ταύτῃ,
__C.VIII.4.a on this spot, here, ταύτῃ μὲν.., τῇδε δ᾽ αὖ.. prev. author “Ph.” 1331; ἀλλ᾽ ἐὰν ταύτῃ γε νικᾷ, ταυτῃὶ πεπλήξεται Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 271, compare “Th.” 1221.
__C.VIII.4.b in this point, herein, μηδὲν ταύτῃ γε κομήσῃς prev. author “Pl.” 572, compare Xenophon Historicus “Hiero” 7.12, etc.
__C.VIII.4.c in this way, thus, Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 191, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 1300, etc.; οὐ.. ταῦτ᾽ ἐστί πω ταύτῃ Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 843; ἀλλ᾽ οὔτι ταύτῃ ταῦτα Euripides Tragicus “Medea” 365, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Prometheus Vinctus” 511: antecedent to ὥσπερ, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 330c ; to ὅπῃ, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 8.3.2; οὕτω τε καὶ ταύτῃ γίγνοιτο Plato Philosophus “Leges” 681d; καὶ οὕτω καὶ ταύτῃ ἂν ἔχοι prev. work 714d ; ταύτῃ καλεῖσθαι, etc., like οὕτω κ., Scholia Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 215b.
__C.VIII.5 ἐκ τούτου or τούτων thereupon, Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 3.1.6, “Oec.” 2.1 ; therefore, prev. author “An.” 3.3.5.
__C.VIII.6 ἐν τούτῳ in that case, Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 440c.
__C.VIII.6.b in the meantime, Herodotus Historicus 1.126, Thucydides Historicus 3.72, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 2.1.27.
__C.VIII.7 πρὸς τούτοις (-οισι) besides, Herodotus Historicus 2.51, Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 326a, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 2.4.4, Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 540.

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks οὗτος G3778 "deze, dit"; Grieks τοῦ G5120 "tou";

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