G5590 ψυχή
adem, levensadem. ziel, psyche, Psychologie
Taal: Grieks

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Psychologie, Ziel,

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psu'che, zn vr; van ψυχω G5594; Hebreeuws נֶפֶשׂ H05315; TDNT - 9:608,1342;


adem

  1. de levensadem
    1. de levenskracht die het lichaam bezielt en zich in het ademen toont
      1. van dieren
      2. van mensen
  2. leven
  3. dat waarin leven is
    1. een levend wezen, een levende ziel

de ziel

  1. de zetel van de gevoelens, verlangens, voorkeur en afkeur (ons hart, onze ziel, enz.)
  2. de (menselijke) ziel in zoverre deze zodanig gevormd wordt dat zij door het juiste gebruik van de hulp die haar door God geboden wordt, de hoogste eeuwige zegeningen kan verkrijgen, de ziel beschouwd als het morele wezen dat voor het eeuwige leven bestemd is
  3. de ziel als een wezenlijk iets dat van het lichaam verschilt en door de dood niet verdwijnt (in onderscheid van de andere delen van het lichaam)

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Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

ψυχή, -ῆς, ἡ, [in LXX very freq. for נֶפֶשׁ H5315, sometimes for לֵבַב ,לֵב H3842,H3820, etc. ;] 1. breath (Lat. anima), breath of life, life (Hom., al.; in Arist., of the vital principle): Mt 6:25, Mk 3:4 10:45, Lk 12:22, Jo 10:11, Ac 20:10, 24, II Co 1:23, Phl 2:30, I Th 2:8, al. 2. the soul (a) as the seat of the will, desires and affections: Mt 26:38, Mk 12:30 (LXX) 14:34, Lk 1:46, Jo 10:24, Ac 14:2, Phl 1:27, al.; ἐκ ψυχῆς, from the heart, heartily: Eph 6:6, Col 3:23; (b) as a periphrasis for person or self (freq. in translation from Semitic originals, v. M, Pr., 87; Robinson, Gospels, 113 ff.; but also freq. in cl., v. LS, s.v. II, 2; Edwards, Lex., App. A.): Mt 11:29, Mk 8:36, Ac 2:41, Ro 2:9, I Pe 3:20, al.; πᾶσα ψ., Ac 2:43 3:23 (LXX), Ro 13:1; ψ. ζῶσα (ζωῆς), I Co 15:45, Re 16:3; (c) as the object of divine grace and eternal salvation: He 13:17, Ja 1:21 5:20, I Pe 1:9, 22 2:11 4:19, III Jo 2.

SYN.: v.s. νοῦς, πνεῦμα, ψυχικός, and cf. ICC on I Th 5:23, Lft., Notes, 88 f.

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

ψῡχ-ή, ἡ,
  life, λύθη ψ. τε μένος τε Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.296, etc.; ψ. τεκαὶ αἰών 16.453, compare Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 9.523; θυμοῦ καὶ ψ. Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.334, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 21.154; λαυκανίην, ἵνα τε ψυχῆς ὤκιστος ὄλεθρος Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 22.325 ; ψυχὰς παρθέμενοι at hazard of their lives, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.74, 9.255; αἰεὶ ἐμὴν ψ. παραβαλλόμενος Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.322 ; λίσσου᾽ ὑπὲρ ψ. καὶ γούνων by your life, 22.338; so ἀντὶ ψ. Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 1326: but περὶ ψ. to save their life, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 9.423; περί τε ψυχέων ἐμάχοντο 22.245; περὶ ψ. θέον Ἕκτορος Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 22.161; τρέχων περὶ τῆς ψ. Herodotus Historicus 9.37; τῆς ἐμῆς περὶ ψ. Aeschylus Tragicus “Eumenides” 115, compare Euripides Tragicus “Helena” 946, “Heracl.” 984; περὶ ψ. κινδυνεύων Antipho Orator 2.1.4, compare Thucydides Historicus 8.50; ἁγὼν.. σῆς ψ. πέρι Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 1492, compare Euripides Tragicus “Phoenissae” 1330, “Or.” 847, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 3.3.44; τὸν περὶ ψ. δρόμον δραμεῖν Aristophanes Comicus “Vespae” 375 (Lyric poetry); ἀγωνίζεσθαι περὶ τῆς ψ. Xenophon Historicus “de Equitum magistro” 1.19 ; ὃ ἂν θέλῃ, ψυχῆς ὠνεῖται θυμός in exchange for life, 1st c.AD(?): Heraclitus 85; τῆς ψ. πρίασθαί τι Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 3.1.36; τί γὰρ δοῖ ἄνθρωπος ἀντάλλαγμα τῆς ψ. αὐτο; NT.Mark.8.37. In early poets: ψυχὰν ἀποπνεῖν Simonides Lyricus 52; ψυχὰς ἔχοντες κυμάτων ἐν ἀγκάλαις Archilochus Lyricus 23; ψυχέων φειδόμενοι Tyrtaeus Elegiacus 10.14; θειδωλὴν ψ. θέμενος Solon Lyricus 13.46; ψυχῆς εἵνεκα καὶ βιότου Theognis Elegiacus 730; ψυχὰν Ἀΐδᾳ τελέων Pindarus Lyricus “I.” 1.68; ψυχὰς βαλον prev. author “O.” 8.39; χαλκῷ ἀπὸ ψυχὴν ἀρύσας Empedocles Poeta Philosophus 138; τοὐμὸν ἐκπίνουσ᾽ ἀεὶ ψυχῆς ἄκρατον αἷμα Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 786 ; τῆς ἐμῆς ψ. γεγώς prev. work 775; τὴν ψ. ἐκπίνουσιν Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 712 (anap.); ψ. ἀφήσω Euripides Tragicus “Orestes” 1171; ψ. σέθεν ἔκτεινε prev. author “Tr.” 1214; ψ. παραιτέεσθαι Herodotus Historicus 1.24 ; ποινὴν τῆς Αἰσώπου ψ. satisfaction for the life of Aeschylus Tragicus, prev. author 2.134; ψυχῆς ἀποστερῆσαί τινα Antipho Orator 4.1.6, compare Thucydides Historicus 1.136, etc.; τὴν ψ. ἢ τὴν οὐσίαν ἢ τὴν ἐπιτιμίαν τινὸς ἀφελόμενος Aeschines Orator 2.88; τὸ τῆς ψ. ἀπαιτηθεὶς χρέος LXX.Wis.15. 8, cf. NT.Luke.12.20; ζητοῦσι τὴν ψ. μου LXX.1Ki.19.10, cf. NT.Matt.2.20; τὴν ψ. αὐτοῦ τίθησιν ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων NT.John.10.11, etc.; δεῖρον ἄχρις ἡ ψ... ἐπὶ χειλέων λειφθῇ within an inch of his life, Herodas Mimographus 3.3: —the phrase ἐν τῇ χειρὶ τὴν ψ. ἔχοντα taking his life in his hands, is probably falsa lectio in Xenarchus Comicus 4.20; ἡ ψ. μου ἐν ταῖς χερσί σου διὰ πάντος LXX.Psa.118(119).109, cf. LXX.1Ki.19.5, 28.21, al. +4th c.BC+; of life in animals, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 14.426, Hesiodus Epicus “Scutum Herculis” 173, Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 1.47, etc.; τὰ ἄλλα ζῷα, ὅσα ψ. ἔχει Anaxagoras Philosophus 4, compare 12; πάντων τῶν ζῴων ἡ ψ. τὸ αὐτό, ἀήρ Diogenes Cynicus Philosophus Apoll.5 (compare infr. IV. 1) ; ἡ φύσις τοιαύτη πάντων ὅσσα ψ. ἔχει Democrit.278; ἐπῴζει καὶ ποιεῖ ψ. ἔχειν (of incubation) Epicharmus Comicus 172; ἑρπετὸν ὃ ἔχει ἐν ἑαυτῷ ψ. ζωῆς LXX.Gen.1.30 +5th c.BC+; ἡ ψ. πάσης σαρκὸς αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐστιν LXX.Lev.17.11, cf. LXX.Deu.12.23.
__2 metaphorically of things dear as life, χρήματα γὰρ ψ... βροτοῖσι Hesiodus Epicus “Opera et Dies” 686; πᾶσι δ᾽ ἀνθρώποις ἄρ᾽ ἦν ψ. τέκν᾽ Euripides Tragicus “Andromache” 419; τἀργύριόν ἐστιν αἷμα καὶ ψ. βροτοῖς Timocles Comicus 35 ; so as an endearing name, Heliodorus Scriptor Eroticus 1.8, al.; ζωὴ καὶ ψ. Juvenalis, D. Junius Poeta Latinus 6.195; ψ. μου Martialis Epigrammaticus Latinus 10.68.
__II in Homerus Epicus , departed spirit, ghost (ὑποτίθεται Ὅμηρος τὰς ψ. τοῖς εἰδώλοις τοῖς ἐν τοῖς κατόπτροις φαινομένοις ὁμοίας.. ἃ καθάπαξ ἡμῖν ἐξείκασται καὶ τὰς κινήσεις μιμεῖται, στερεμνιώδη δὲ ὑπόστασιν οὐδεμίαν ἔχει εἰς ἀντίληψιν καὶ ἁφήν Apollodorus Damascenus Mechanicus Hist. “fragment” 102(a) Josephus Historicus); ψ. Πατροκλῆος.. πάντ᾽ αὐτῷ.. ἐϊκυῖα Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 23.65: frequently in Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 11, ψ. Ἀγαμέμνονος, Ἀχιλῆος, etc., 387, 467, al. ; ψ. καὶ εἴδωλον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 23.104, compare 72, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 24.14; ψ. κατὰ χθονὸς ᾤχετο τετριγυῖα Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 23.100 ; ψυχὰς ἡρώων, opposed to αὐτούς, 1.3, compare Hesiodus Epicus “Scutum Herculis” 151; ψυχαὶ δ᾽ Ἄϊδόσδε κατῆλθον Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 7.330; ψ. δὲ κατ᾽ οὐταμένην ὠτειλὴν ἔσσυτ᾽ ἐπειγομένη 14.518 ; sometimes hardly distinct from signification 1, ἅμα ψ. τε καὶ ἔγχεος ἐξέρυσ᾽ αἰχμήν 16.505 ; in swoons it leaves the body, τὸν δὲ λίπε ψ. 5.696 ; so in later writers (seldom in Trag.), σὺν Ἀγαμεμνονίᾳ ψυχᾷ Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 11.21 ; ἑὰν ψυχὰν κομίξαι prev. work 4.159, compare “N.” 8.44; αἱ ψ. ὀσμῶνται καθ᾽ Ἅιδην 1st c.AD(?): Heraclitus 98; πέμψατ᾽ ἔνερθεν ψυχὴν ἐς φῶς Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 630 (anap.); ποτωμένην ψ. ὑπὲρ σοῦ Euripides Tragicus “Orestes” 676, compare “fragment” 912.9 (anap.); τὰς τῶν κεκμηκότων ψ., αἷς ἐστιν ἐν τῇ φύσει τῶν αὑτῶν ἐκγόνων κήδεσθαι Plato Philosophus “Leges” 927b ; ψ. σοφαί, perhaps 'wise ghosts', Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 94; δὶς ἀποθανουμένη ψ. Anonymus cited in Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.236d.
__III the immaterial and immortal soul, first in Pindar, ἐς τὸν ὕπερθεν ἅλιον κείνων.. ἀνδιδοῖ Φερσεφόνα ψυχὰς πάλιν “fragment” 133, compare Plato Philosophus “Meno” 81b; εἰπόντες ὡς ἀνθρώπου ψ. ἀθάνατός ἐστι Herodotus Historicus 2.123; ἀγένητόν τε καὶ ἀθάνατον ψ. Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 246a, compare “Phd.” 70c, al.; ἀθάνατος ἡμῶν ἡ ψ. καὶ οὐδέποτε ἀπόλλυται prev. author “R.” 608d; ἁψ. τῷ σώματι συνέζευκται καὶ καθάπερ ἐν σάματι τέθαπται Philolaus Philosophus 14, compare Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 400c: hence frequently opposed to σῶμα, ψ. καὶ σῶμα Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.3.5, compare “An.” 3.2.20; ψ. ἢ σῶμα ἢ συναμφότερον, τὸ ὅλον τοῦτο Plato Philosophus Alcaeus1.130a; εἰς θηρίου βίον ἀνθρωπίνη ψ. ἀφικνεῖται καὶ ἐκ θηρίου.. πάλιν εἰς ἄνθρωπον prev. author “Phdr.” 249b; κατὰ τοὺς Πυθαγορικοὺς μύθους τὴν τυχοῦσαν ψ. εἰς τὸ τυχὸν ἐνδύεσθαι σῶμα Aristoteles Philosophus “de Anima” 407b22; οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἐπείσθην, ὡς ἡ ψ., ἕως μὲν ἂν ἐν θνητῷ σώματι ᾖ, ζῇ, ὅταν δὲ τούτου ἀπαλλαγῇ, τέθνηκεν Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 8.7.19; ἀνθρώπου γε ψ., ἣ τοῦ θείου μετέχει,.. ὁρᾶται δ᾽ οὐδ᾽ αὐτή prev. author “Mem.” 4.3.14, compare “Cyr.” 8.7.17 ; αἰθὴρ μὲμ ψυχὰς ὑπεδέξατο, σώ ματα δὲ χθών “IG” 12.945 (5th c.BC) ; ὁπόταμ ψ. προλίπῃ φάος ἀελίοιο Orphica “Fragmenta” 32 f. 1; ἡμεῖς ἐσμεν ψ., ζῷον ἀθάνατον ἐν θνητῷ καθειργμένον φρουρίῳ Plato Philosophus “Axiochus” 365e.
__IV the conscious self or personality as centre of emotions, desires, and affections, χερσὶ καὶ ψυχᾷ δυνατοί Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 9.39; μορφὰν βραχύς, ψυχὰν δ᾽ ἄκαμπτος prev. author “I.” 4(3).53(71); ἐνίους τῶν καλῶν τὰς μορφὰς μοχθηροὺς ὄντας τὰς ψ. Xenophon Historicus “Oeconomicus” 6.16; θνητοῦ σώματος ἔτυχες, πειρῶ τῆς ψ. ἀθάνατον μνήμην καταλιπεῖν Isocrates Orator 2.37; opposed to material blessings, κτεάνων ψ. ἔχοντες κρέσσονας Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 9.32; μήτε σωμάτων ἐπιμελεῖσθαι μήτε χρημάτων.. οὕτω σφόδρα ὡς τῆς ψ. ὅπως ὡς ἀρίστη ἔσται Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 30b, compare 29e : hence regarded in abstraction, τὸ παρεχόμενον ἡμῶν ἕκαστον τοῦτ᾽ εἶναι μηδὲν ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τὴν ψ., τὸ δὲ σῶμα ἰνδαλλόμενον ἡμῶν ἑκάστοις ἕπεσθαι Plato Philosophus “Leges” 959a; ἡ ψ. ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος prev. author Alcaeus1.130c; οὐδὲ νῦν τήν γ ἐμὴν ψ. ἑωρᾶτε Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 8.7.17, compare above 111: sometimes, therefore, distinguished from oneself, ψ. γὰρ ηὔδα πολλά μοι μυθουμένη Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 227; ἡ ψ. μου πεπότηται Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 319 (anap.); τί ποτ᾽ ἔστι μαθεῖν ἔραται ψ. Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 173 (anap.); ἄλλο τι βουλομένη ἑκατέρου ἡ ψ. δήλη ἐστίν Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 192c ; οἴμοι ψυχή woe is me! LXX.Mic.7.1 ; καὶ ἐρῶ τῇ ψ. μου, “ψυχή, ἔχεις πολλὰ ἀγαθά” NT.Luke.12.19 ; in periphrases, ψ. Ὀρέστου, ={Ὀρέστης}, Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 1127, al.: but τὴν Φιλοκτήτου ψ. ἐκκλέψεις his wits, prev. author “Ph.” 55; ἡ δ᾽ ἐμὴ ψ. τέθνηκεν prev. author “Ant.” 559, compare “OC” 999 ; so ψυχαί absolutely, ={ἄνθρωποι, ψ. ὀλέσασα} Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 1457 (Lyric poetry) ; ψ. πολλαὶ ἔθανον many souls perished, Aristophanes Comicus “Thesmophoriazusae” 864; πᾶσαι αἱ ψ., υἱοὶ καὶ αἱ θυγατέρες λ γ LXX.Gen.46.15, cf. LXX.Exo.12.4, al.; κιβωτὸς εἰς ἣν ὀλίγοι, τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν ὀκτὼ ψ., διεσώθησαν NT.1Pet.3.20. In apostrophe, μή, φίλα ψ. Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 3.61; ὦ μελέα ψ. Sophocles Tragicus “Philoctetes” 712 (Lyric poetry); ὦ ἀγαθὴ καὶ πιστὴ ψ. Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 7.3.8 ; in referring to persons, ὅταν μεγάλη ψ. φυῇ Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 496b (compare μεγαλόψυχος) ; καλεῖται γοῦν ἡ ψ. Κρινοκοράκα the creature, Theophrastus Philosophus “Characteres” 28.2; πάσῃ ψ. τετελευτηκυίᾳ LXX.Num.6.6, 11; πᾶσα ψ. ὑποτασσέσθω NT.Rom.13.1, etc.: generally, being, ψυχὴ ζῶσα living creature, LXX.Gen.1.24, compare 20 (pl.).
__IV.2 of various aspects of the self, ἐν πολέμοιο μάχαις τλάμονι ψ. παρέμειν) enduring heart, Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 1.48; διεπειρᾶτο αὐτοῦ τῆς ψ. Herodotus Historicus 3.14, ἦν ηὰρ.. ψυχὴν οὐκ ἄκρος poor-spirited, prev. author 5.124; ψυχὴν ἄριστε πάντων Aristophanes Comicus “Equites” 457; καρτερὰν ψ. λαβεῖν prev. author “Ach.” 393; κράτιστοι ἂν τὴν ψ. κριθεῖεν Thucydides Historicus 2.40; τοῖς σώμασι δύνανται τὰς δὲ ψ. οὐκ ἔχουσιν Lysias Orator 10.29; ὁ γὰρ᾽ λόγχην ἀκονῶν καὶ τὴν ψ. τι παρακονᾷ Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 6.2.33, compare “Oec.” 21.3.
__IV.3 of the emotional self, ὑπείργασμαι μὲν εὖ ψυχὴν ἔρωτι Euripides Tragicus “Hippolytus” 505, compare 527 (Lyric poetry); πάνυ μου ἡ ψ. ἐπεθύμει Xenophon Historicus “Oeconomicus” 6.14; τίνα ποτὲ ψ. ἔχω; Lysias Orator 32.12 ; τίν᾽ οἴεσθ᾽ αὐτὴν ψ. ἕξειν, ὅταν ἐμὲ ῒδ; how will she feel? Demosthenes Orator 28.21 ; μία ψ., proverbial of friends, Aristoteles Philosophus “Ethica Nicomachea” 1168b7 ; ψ. μία ἤστην probably in Phrynichus Atticista “Praeparatio Sophistica” p.128B. ; of appetite, ψυχῇ διδόντες ἡδονήν Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 841 (assuming variant), compare Epicharmus Comicus 297, Theocr. 16.24; λίχνῳ δὲ ὄντι τὴν ψ. Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 579b; τῷ δὲ ἡ ψ. σῖτον μὲν οὐ προσίετο, διψῆν δ᾽ ἐδόκει Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 8.7.4.
__IV.4 of the moral and intellectual self, ἀπὸ πάμπαν ἀδίκων ἔχειν ψ. Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 2.70; ψ. τε καὶ φρόνημα καὶ γνώμην Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 176; ἀρκεῖν.. κἀντὶ μυρίων μίαν ψ. τάδ᾽ ἐκτίνουσαν, ἢν εὔνους παρῇ prev. author “OC” 499; ψ. γὰρ εὔνους καὶ φρονοῦσα τοὔνδικον prev. author “fragment” 101; ἡ κακὴ σὴ ψ. prev. author “Ph.” 1014; ψυχῆς κατήγορος κακῆς Xenophon Historicus “Oeconomicus” 20.15, compare Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 353e; ἡ βουλεύσασα ψ. Antipho Orator 4.1.7, compare Plato Philosophus “Leges” 873a ; τὸ σῶμα ἀπειρηκὸς ἡ ψ. συνεξέσωσεν.. διὰ τὸ μὴ ξυνειδέναι ἑαυτῇ the mind conscious of innocence, Antipho Orator 5.93; τὸ ἐπιμελεῖσθαι καὶ ἄρχειν καὶ βουλεύεσθαι.. ἐσθ᾽ ὅτῳ ἄλλῳ ἢ ψυχῇ δικαίως ἂν ἀποδοῖμε; Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 353d; τὴν τῆς ψ. ἐπιμέλειαν Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.2.4, Isocrates Orator 15.304; τὰ ἐν τῇ ψ. διὰ τὴν παιδείαν ἐγγιγνόμενα prev. work290; τῆς ψ. ἐξελθούσης, ἐν ᾗ μόνῃ γίγνεται φρόνησις Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.2.53; νοῦς τε καὶ ψ. Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 400a, compare “Phdr.” 247c, al.; ἐμπαίει τί μοι ψυχῇ σύνηθες ὄμμα Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 903; ἰδὼν μὲν γνούς τε σῇ ψ., τέκνον Euripides Tragicus “Troades” 1171. Phrases:— ἐκ τῆς ψ. φίλος Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 7.7.43 ; ἀπὸ τῆς ψ. φιλεῖν with all the heart, Theophrastus Philosophus “Characteres” 17.3; βόσκοιτ᾽ ἐκ ψυχᾶς τὰς ἀμνάδας Theocritus Poeta Bucolicus 8.35; ὅλῃ τῇ ψ. κεχαρίσθαι τινί Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 3.11.10 ; οὐκ ἐᾷ ἡμᾶς οὐδὲ ψυχῆς λαχεῖν he won't let us call our soul our own, Phrynichus Atticista “Praeparatio Sophistica” p.128B.
__IV.5 of animals, ψ. μεγαλόφρων, of a horse, Xenophon Historicus “de Equitandi ratione” 11.1; θηρίων ψ. ἡμεροῦμεν Isocrates Orator 2.12 ; ψ. χηνός, ὀρτυγίου, Eubulus Comicus 101, Antiphanes Comicus 5.
__IV.6 of inanimate things, πᾶσα πολιτεία ψ. πόλεώς ἐστιν Isocrates Orator 12.138, compare 7.14; ἡ τῶνδε τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀρετὴ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἦν ψ. Demosthenes Orator 60.23; οἷον ψ. ὁ μῦθος τῆς τραγῳδίας Aristoteles Philosophus “Poetica” 1450a38 ; also of the spirit of an author, Dionysius Halicarnassensis “de Lysia” 11.
__V Philosophical uses:
__V.1 In the early physicists, of the primary substance, the source of life and consciousness, ὁρίζονται πάντες (i.e. οἱ πρότεροι) τὴν ψ. τρισίν, κινήσει, αἰσθήσει, τῷ ἀσωμάτῳ Aristoteles Philosophus “de Anima” 405b11; τὸν λίθον ἔφη Θαλῆς ψ. ἔχειν ὅτι τὸν σίδηρον κινεῖ, of the magnet, prev. work 405a20 ; ψυχῇσιν θάνατος ὕδωρ γενέσθαι, ὕδατι δὲ θάνατος γῆν γενέσθαι, ἐκ γῆς δὲ ὕδωρ γίνεται, ἐξ ὕδατος δὲ ψ. (i.e. πῦρ) 1st c.AD(?): Heraclitus 36; ἡ ψ. πνεῦμα Xenophanes Poeta Philosophus cited in 3rd c.AD(?): Diogenes Laertius 9.19 ; καρδία ψυχῆς καὶ αἰσθήσιος ἀρχά Philolaus Philosophus 13; τοῦτο ἀὴρ αὐτοῖς καὶ ψ. ἐστι καὶ νόησις Diogenes Cynicus Philosophus Apoll.4; τὴν τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων φύσιν οὐ πιστεύεις Ἀναξαγόρᾳ νοῦν καὶ ψ. εἶναι τὴν διακοσμοῦσα; Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 400a, compare Aristoteles Philosophus “de Anima” 404a25 ; Δημόκριτος πῦρ τι καὶ θερμόν θησιν αὐτὴν (i.e. ψυχὴν) εἶναι prev. work 404a1, compare “Resp.” 472a4.
__V.2 the spirit of the universe, ψ. εἰς τὸ μέσον τοῦ κόσμου θείς Plato Philosophus “Timaeus” 34b, compare 30b; τὴν τοῦ παντὸς δῆλον ὅτι τοιαύτην εἶναι βούλεται ὁ Τίμαιος οἷόν ποτ᾽ ἐστὶν ὁ καλούμενος νοῦς Aristoteles Philosophus “de Anima” 407a3 ; ἐν τῷ ὅλῳ τινὲς τὴν ψ. μεμεῖχθαί φασιν, ὅθεν ἴσως καὶ Θαλῆς ᾠήθη πάντα πλήρη θεῶν εἶναι prev. work 411a8; ὁ κόσμος ψ. ἐστὶν ἑαυτοῦ καὶ ἡγεμονικόν Chrysippus Stoicus 2.186 ; ψ. κόσμου Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.1013e, compare Marcus Antoninus Imperator 4.40; ψ. ἐλθοῦσα εἰς σῶμα οὐρανοῦ Plotinus Philosophus 5.1.2; τόδε τὸ πᾶν ψ. μίαν ἔχον εἰς πάντα αὐτοῦ μέρη prev. author 4.4.32 ; περὶ ψυχᾶς κόσμου καὶ φύσιος, title of work by Timaeus Locrus Philosophus
__V.3 In Plato Philosophus the immaterial principle of movement and life, ὅταν παρῇ ψυχὴ τῷ σώματι, αἴτιόν ἐστι τοῦ ζῆν αὐτῷ Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 399d, compare “Def.” 411c; ψυχῆς λόγον ἔχομεν τὴν δυναμένην αὐτὴν αὑτὴν κινεῖν κίνησιν prev. author “Lg.” 896a; μεταβολῆς τε καὶ κινήσεως ἁπάσης αἰτία ἡ ψ. ἅπασιν prev. work b, compare 892c ; its presence is requisite for thought, σοφία καὶ νοῦς ἄνευ ψ. οὐκ ἂν γενοίσθην prev. author “Phlb.” 30c, compare “Ti.” 30b, “Sph.” 249a; defined by Aristoteles Philosophus as οὐσία ὡς εἶδος σώματος φυσικοῦ δυνάμει ζωὴν ἔχοντος “de An.” 412a20; ἐντελέχεια ἡ πρώτη σώματος φυσικοῦ ὀργανικοῦ prev. work 412b5 ; the tripartite division of ψ., οἱ δὲ περὶ Πλάτωνα καὶ Ἀρχύτας καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ Πυθαγόρειοι τὴν ψ. τριμερῆ ἀποφαίνονται, διαιροῦντες εἰς λογισμὸν καὶ θυμὸν καὶ ἐπιθυμίαν Iamblichus Philosophus cited in Stobaeus, Joannes 1.49.34, compare Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 439e.ff; in Aristoteles Philosophus ἡ ψ. τούτοις ὥρισται, θρεπτικῷ, αἰσθητικῷ, διανοητικῷ, κινήσει· πότερον δὲ τοὔτων ἕκαστόν ἐστι ψ. ἢ ψυχῆς μόριο; “de An.” 413b11, compare “PA” 641b4; ἡ θρεπτικὴ ψ. prev. author “de An.” 434a22, al. ; in the Stoics and Epicureans, σῶμα ἡ ψ. Zeno and Chrysippus Stoicus 1.38 ; of the scala naturae, τὰ μὲν ἕξει διοικεῖται, τὰ δὲ φύσει, τὰ δ᾽ ἀλόγῳ ψ., τὰ δὲ καὶ λόγον ἐχούσῃ καὶ διάνοιαν “Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta” 2.150, compare Marcus Antoninus Imperator 6.14; ἡ ψ. σῶμά ἐστι λεπτομερές.. προσεμφερέστατον πνεύματι θερμοῦ τινα κρᾶσιν ἔχοντι Epicurus Philosophus “Epistulae” 1p.19U.; τέλος.. τὸ μήτε ἀλγεῖν κατὰ σῶμα μήτε ταράττεσθαι κατὰ ψ. prev. author “Ep.” 3p.64U. ; in the Neo-Platonists characterized by discursive thinking, τοὺς λογισμοὺς ψυχῆς εἶναι ἐνεργήματα Plotinus Philosophus 1.1.7 ; related to νοῦς as image to archetype, εἰκών τίς ἐστι νοῦ ψ. prev. author 5.1.3 ; present in entirety in every part, πάρεστι πᾶσα πανταχοῦ ψ. prev. author 5.1.2, compare 4.7.5; φύσις ψ. οὖσα, γέννημα ψυχῆς προτέρας prev. author 3.8.4 ; animal and vegetable bodies possess οἷον σκιὰν ψυχῆς prev. author 4.4.18; πᾶν σῶμα.. ψυχῆς μετουσίᾳ κινεῖται ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ καὶ ζῇ διὰ ψ. Proclus Philosophus “Inst.” 20.
__VI butterfly or moth, Aristoteles Philosophus “Historia Animalium” 551a14, Theophrastus Philosophus “Historia Plantarum” 2.4.4, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.636c.
__VI.2 τριπόλιον, Ps.- Dioscorides (Dioscurides) Medicus 4.132.
__VII Psyche, in the allegory of Psyche and Eros, 4th c.AD(?): Apuleius Scriptor Botanicus “Metam.” books 4-6, Aristophontes cited in Fulg. “Myth.” 3.6. (See ancient speculations on the derivation, Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 399d - 400a, Aristoteles Philosophus “de Anima” 405b29, Chrysippus Stoicus 2.222; Homerus Epicus usage gives little support to the derivation from ψύχω 'blow, breathe'; τὸν δὲ λίπε ψ. Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 5.696 means 'his spirit left his body', and so λειποψυχέω means 'swoon', not 'become breathless'; ἀπὸ δὲ ψ. ἐκάπυσσε Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 22.467 means 'she gasped out her spirit', i.e. 'swooned'; the resemblance of ἄμπνυτο 'recovered consciousness' to ἀμπνέω 'recover breath' is deceptive, see at {ἄμπνυτο, ἔμπνυτο}: when concrete the Homeric ψ. is rather warm blood than breath, compare Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 14.518, 16.505, where the ψ. escapes through a wound; compare ψυχοπότης, ψυχορροφέω, and Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 786, Aristophanes Comicus “Nubes” 712 (see. above 1).)

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks ἄψυχος G895 "levenloos, zielloos"; Grieks δίψυχος G1374 "onbesloten, twijfelend"; Grieks εὐψυχέω G2174 "vrolijk zijn"; Grieks ζωή G2222 "leven"; Grieks θυμός G2372 "hartstocht, hitte, toorn, opwelling"; Grieks ἰσόψυχος G2473 "gelijkgezind"; Grieks νοῦς G3563 "denken (het), denkvermogen, verstand, gevoelens, voornemens, verlangens"; Grieks πνεῦμα G4151 "luchtbeweging, geest, levensbeginsel"; Grieks σύμψυχος G4861 "eensgezind, unaniem"; Grieks φάγω G5315 "eten"; Grieks ψυχικός G5591 "van of behorend tot de adem"; Grieks ψύχω G5594 ""; Hebreeuws חַי H2416 "dieren, gedierte, dier(en), leven (ww), leven (zn), levend";

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