H307 אַחְמְתָא
Achmetha, Ecbatana
Taal: Hebreeuws

Onderwerpen

Achmetha, Ecbatana (plaats),

Statistieken

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Zie hier voor een verklaring van de gebruikte coderingen.

Woordstudie

ʾaḥmĕtāʾ, Aramees, plaatsnaam; van Perzische herkomst; Achmeta = "Ecbatana"


1) plaats (Ezr. 6:2)

Achmetha -> Ecbatana, hoofdstad van Medië, door Cyrus ingenomen in 550 v.C., en sindsdien zomerverblijf van de Perzische koningen; De oude spelling van deze naam is gedetermineerd door Lassen (Ind Biblioth. Iii. 36), in het Sanskr. açuàdhana, dwz ἱπποστασία, het Sanskr. ç veranderd soms in een keelklank, en soms in de s. De bijbehorende moderne naam is Ispahan. (Gesenius. Corr.-In Manuale) en wordt tegenwoordig Hamadan (ﻩمدان) genoemd.

De verslagen van reizigers die de restanten van deze stad bezochten zijn verzameld door Hoeck (Veteris Mediæ et Persiæ Monumenta, p. 144–155). Als het woord Phœnicio-Shemitisch is, dan heeft het dezelfde betekenis als חֲמָת (van de stam חמה) "paleis, burcht"; als het Perzisch is dan is het afkomstig van ابادان "een gecultiveerde plaats, een stad vol met bewoners". De eerste verklaring is het meest waarschijnlijk.


The name itself, transmitted by the Classical authors as Ecbatana (q.v.), appears as hamGmaTAna- in an inscription of Darius I at Bisotun (DB 2.76 ff.; Ahmatan and Hamatan in its Armenian variants; see Weissbach, col. 2155; ahmeTA in biblical Hebrew in Ezra 6:2). This can be read as a form of the OPers. hamGmaTa- ("[place of] gathering"; see Kent, pp. 183, 212). The Elamite form, hal.maTa.na, suggests the meaning "land of the Medes" (Frye, p. 105). Whether this is the case or not, the town entered history as the recognized capital of the Median tribes. Herodotus attributes its creation to the Median king Deioces (q.v.), who, at the end of the 8th century B.C.E., compelled the Medes, until then living in scattered communities, to construct a single town on an isolated hill (Herodotus, 1.96-101). He had this hill, perhaps identical with the present-day mocallA Hill in hamaDAn, fortified with seven concentric ramparts. This description by Herodotus now appears rather fanciful when it is compared with another description by the Greek physician Ctesias (apud Diodorus, 2.13.4-8), which was derived from a different source and is more in line with the present site. The most plausible interpretation is that Deioces declared a pre-existing town to be the new capital of a people he unified and which he then ordered to be renovated according to his schemes. ... The earliest reference to the Jews in hamaDAn is in The Old Testament, according to which a group of Israelites were brought to the Persian plateau by King Shalmaneser of Assyria in around 722 B.C.E. (2 Kings 18.11) and "settled there in the cities of the Medes." Based on hamaDAn's size and importance as the royal city or the capital of the Medes (Dandamaev and Lukonin, p. 48), it is reasonable to assume that many of these Jews settled there, making hamaDAn's Jewish community the oldest outside Israel. According to Habib Levy "the Jews of hamaDAn believe they are of the tribe of Simeon [one of the twelve Tribes of Israel], most of them having chosen the name 'Simeon' for their male children in generations past" (Levy, p. 28). (Xavier de Planhol, "HAMADAN" Encyclopaedia Iranica)


Brown-Driver-Briggs Abridged Hebrew Lexicon

אַחְמְתָא n.pr.loc. Ecbatana, Ezr 6:2

Strong Concise Dictionary Of The Words In The Hebrew Bible

H307 אַחְמְתָא ʼAchmᵉthâʼ; of Persian derivation; Achmetha (i.e. Ecbatana), the summer capital of Persia — Achmetha.

Literatuur


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