G3844 παρά
vanaf, van, bij, naast, vlakbij
Taal: Grieks

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pa'ra, vz een grondwoord; TDNT - 5:727,771;


vanaf, van, bij, naast, vlakbij


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Lexicon G. Abbott-Smith

Voor meer informatie: G. Abbott-Smith's A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Scribner's, 1922)

παρά, prep. c. gen., dat., acc., with radical sense, beside I. C. gen. pers., from the side of, from beside, from, indicating source or origin, [in LXX for מֵאֵצֶל H681, מִיַד H3027, מִלִּפְנֵי H6440;] after verbs of motion, Mk 14:43, Lk 8:49, Jo 15:26, al.; after verbs of seeking, receiving, hearing, etc., Mk 8:11 12:2, Jo 4:9, 52 10:18, Phl 4:18, II Ti 1:18, Ja 1:7, al.; after passive verbs, of the agent (like ὑπό), Mt 21:42, Mk 12:11, Lk 1:37; absol., οἱ παρ’ αὐτοῦ, his family, his kinsfolk, Mk 3:21 (cf. M, Pr., 106 f.; Field, Notes, 25 f.; Swete, in l.); τὰ παρ’ αὐτῆς (αὐτῶν, ὑμῶν), one's means, wealth, Mk 5:26, Lk 10:7, Phl 4:18. II. C. dat. pers. (exc. Jo 19:25, π. τ. σταυρῷ), by the side of, beside, by, with, [in LXX for בְּעֵינֵי H5869, בְּיַד H3027, אֵצֶל H681;] Lk 11:37 19:7, Jo 1:40 4:40, Ac 28:14, al.; παρ’ ἑαυτῷ, at home, I Co 16:2; c. dat. pl., among, Mt 22:25, Col 4:16, al.; metaph., Mt 19:26, Mk 10:27, Lk 1:30, Ro 2:13, Ja 1:27, al. III. C. acc., of motion by or towards, [in LXX for בְּעֵבֶר ,עַל יַד ,אֵצֶל H5676,H5921,H3027,H681 1. of place, by the side of, beside, by, along: Ac 10:32, He 11:12; after verbs of motion, Mt 4:18, Mk 4:4, Lk 8:5, Ac 4:35, al.; after verbs of rest, Mt 13:1, Mk 5:21, Lk 8:35, al. 2. beside, beyond (a) beyond, against, contrary to: Ac 18:13, Ro 1:26 4:18 11:24, al.; except, II Co 11:24; (b) beyond, above, in comparison with: Lk 3:13, Ro 12:3 14:5, He 1:4, 9 3:3, al.; (c) on account of: I Co 12:15, 16. IV. In composition: beside, to (παραλαμβάνω, παράγω), at hand (πάρειμι), from (παραρρέω), amiss (παρακούω), past (παρέρχομαι), compared with (παρομοιάζω), above measure (παροργίζω).

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Voor meer informatie: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (1940)

πᾰρά ρᾰ,
  Epic dialect and Lyric poetry also παραί: shortened πάρ, in Homerus Epicus , Lyric poetry (but rarely in Trag., in Lyric poetry passages, Aeschylus Tragicus “Supplices” 553, Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 636) , and in all dial ects except Attic dialect, “GDI” 5434.8 (from Paros), “IG” 5(2).3.14 (Tegea, 4th c.BC), “Inscription Magn.” 26.28 (Thess.) , etc.:—preposition with genitive, dative, and accusative, properly beside: hence,
__A WITH GEN. properly denoting motion from the side of, from beside, from:
__A.I of Place, πὰρ νηῶν ἔλθωμεν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 13.744; παρὰ ναῦφιν ἐλευσόμεθ᾽ 12.225, etc.; παρ᾽ Ὠκεανοῖο ῥοάων.. ἐπερχομένη Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 22.197; πὰρ νηῶν ἀπώσεται Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 8.533, etc.; δῶρα π. νηὸς ἐνεικέμεν 19.194; φάσγανον ὀξὺ ἐρυσσάμενος π. μηροῦ 1.190, compare 21.173; σπασσάμενος.. ἄορ παχέος π. μηροῦ 16.473 ; πλευρὰ παρ᾽ ἀσπίδος ἐξεφαάνθη was exposed beside the shield, 4.468, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Septem contra Thebas” 624.
__A.II commonly of Persons,
__A.II.1 with Verbs of going or coming, bringing, etc., ἦλθε.. πὰρ Διός Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 2.787; παρ᾽ Αἰήταο πλέουσα Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 12.70, etc.; ἀγγελίη ἥκει π. βασιλέος Herodotus Historicus 8.140. ; αὐτομολήσαντες π. βασιλέως Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.7.13; ἐξεληλυθὼς παρ᾽ Ἀριστάρχου Demosthenes Orator 21.117 ; ὁ π. τινὸς ἥκων his messenger, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 4.5.53; so οἱ π. τινός Thucydides Historicus 7.10, NT.Mark.3.21, etc.; ὅστις ἀφικνεῖτο τῶν π. βασιλέως πρὸς αὐτόν Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 1.1.5, etc.; τεύχεα καλὰ φέρουσα παρ᾽ Ἡφαίστοιο from his workshop, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 18.137, compare 617, etc.; ἀπαγγέλλειν τι π. τινός Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 2.1.20; σὺ δὲ οἰμώζειν αὐτοῖς παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ λέγε Lucianus Sophista “DMort.” 1.2.
__A.II.2 issuing from a person, γίγνεσθαι π. τινός to be born from, Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 179b ; λόγος (i.e. ἐστί) π. Ἀθηναίων with accusative et infinitive, Herodotus Historicus 8.55: frequently following a Noun, δόξα ἡ π. τῶν ἀνθρώπων glory from (given by) men, Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 232a ; ἡ π. τινὸς εὔνοια the favour from, i. e. of, any one, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 2.2.12 ; τὸ παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ ἀδίκημα done by me, prev. author “Cyr.” 5.5.13 ; τὰ π. τινός all that issues from any one, as commands, commissions, prev. author “An.” 2.3.4, etc.; or promises, gifts, presents, prev. author “Mem.” 3.11.13 ; τὰ παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ my opinions, Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 219a ; παρ᾽ ἑωυτοῦ διδούς giving from oneself, i. e. from one's own means, Herodotus Historicus 2.129, 8.5; παρ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ προσετίθει Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 6.1.3 ; νόμον θὲς παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ by my advice, Plato Philosophus “Protagoras” 322d ; αὐτοὶ παρ᾽ αὑτῶν of themselves, prev. author “Tht.” 150d, compare “Phdr.” 235c.
__A.II.3 with Verbs of receiving, obtaining, and the like, τυχεῖν τινος π. τινός Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 6.290, 15.158; πὰρ δ᾽ ἄρα μιν Ταφίων πρίατο 14.452; ἀρέομαι πὰρ μὲν Σαλαμῖνος Ἀθαναίων χάριν Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 1.76; εὑρέσθαι τι π. τῶν θεῶν Isocrates Orator 9.14, compare “IG” 12.40.10 ; δέχεσθαι, λαμβάνειν, ἁρπάζειν π. τινός, Thucydides Historicus 1.20, Xenophon Historicus “Oeconomicus” 9.11, Hesiodus Epicus “Theogonia” 914 ; ἀντιάσαι, αἰτήσασθαι π. τινός, Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 870 (Lyric poetry), Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 3.1.4; ἀξιοῖ π. τοῦ ἰατροῦ φάρμακον πιὼν ἐξεμέσαι τὸ νόσημα Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 406d; κόσμος τοῖς πράξασι γίγνεται π. τῶν ἀκουσάντων prev. author “Mx.” 236e: without Verb, ὁ καρπὸς ὁ π. τῶν δημάρχων “IG” 12.76.27: with Verbs of learning, etc., μεμαθηκέναι π. τινῶν Herodotus Historicus 2.104, etc.
__A.II.4 with passive Verbs, πὰρ Διὸς.. μῆνις ἐτύχθη Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 15.122; π. θεῶν ἡ τοιαύτη μανία δίδοται Plato Philosophus “Phaedrus” 245c, etc. ; τὰ π. τῶν θεῶν σημαινόμενα, συμβουλευόμενα, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.6.2; τὰ π. τινὸς λεγόμενα prev. work 6.1.42 ; τὰ π. τῆς τύχης δωρηθέντα the presents of.., Isocrates Orator 4.26; με π. σοῦ σοφίας πληρωθήσεσθαι Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 175e.
__A.III rarely for παρά with dative, by, near, πὰρ ποδός Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 10.62, 3.60 ; παρὰ δὲ κυανέων πελαγέων uncertain reading in Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 966 (Lyric poetry); τὸν Ῥειτὸν τὸν παρὰ τοῦ ἄστεως “IG” 12.81.5 ; πολλοὶ παρ᾽ ἀμφοτέρων ἔπιπτον, ={ἀμφοτέρωθεν}, Diodorus Siculus Historicus 19.42.
__A.IV π. τῆς συγχωρήσεώς τινος without his consent, “BCH” 46.337 (from Teos).
__B WITH DAT. denoting rest by the side of any person or thing, answering the question where?
__B.I of Places, κατ᾽ ἂρ ἕζετ᾽.. πὰρ πυρί, ἔκειτο π. σηκῷ, Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 7.154, 9.319; νέμονται π. πέτρῃ 13.408; ἑσταότες παρ ὄχεσφιν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 8.565 ; πὰρ ποσὶ μαρναμένων ἐκυλίνδετο at their feet, 14.411 , etc.; π. θύρῃσι at the door, 7.346; π. ῥηγμῖνι θαλάσσης 2.773; δεῖπνον.. εἵλοντο παρ᾽ ὄχθῃσιν ποταμοῖο Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 6.97, compare Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.475, 20.53, etc.; κεῖσθαι παρ᾽ Ἅιδῃ Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 972 ; παρ᾽ οἴνῳ over wine, prev. work 780, etc.
__B.II of persons, beside, πὰρ δὲ οἷ αὐτῷ εἷσε Θεοκλύμενον Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 15.285; κεῖτο παρὰ μνηστῇ ἀλόχῳ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 9.556, compare 6.246, etc.; παρ᾽ ἀνδράσιν εὐνάζεσθαι Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 5.119; δαίνυσθαι π. τινί 8.243 ; πὰρ δέ οἱ ἑστήκει stood by him, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.367.
__B.II.2 at one's house or place, with one, μένειν π. τισί 9.427; θητευέμεν ἄλλῳ, ἀνδρὶ παρ᾽ ἀκλήρῳ Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 11.490; φιλέεσθαι π. τινί Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 13.627 ; παρ᾽ ἑωυτοῖσι at their own house, Herodotus Historicus 1.105, compare 86; παιδευθῆναι π. τινί Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.2.15; καταλύειν π. τινί Demosthenes Orator 18.82 (but παρά τινα καταλῦσαι Thucydides Historicus 1.136), etc.: hence οἱ παρ᾽ ἐμοί those of my household, Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 2.7.4, etc. ; τὰ παρ᾽ ἐμοί life with me, prev. author “An.” 1.7.4 ; οἱ παρ᾽ ἡμῖν ἄνθρωποι our people, Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 64b ; ἡ παρ᾽ ἡμῖν πολιτεία, ὁ παρ᾽ ὑμῖν δῆμος, Demosthenes Orator 15.19 ; ὁ παρ᾽ αὑτῷ βίοτος one's own life, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 612; τὸ παρ᾽ ἡμῖν πῦρ Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 29f; ὅσος παρ᾽ ὑμῖν ὁ φθόνος φυλάσσεται Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 382; τὸ παρ᾽ ἡμῖν σῶμα Plato Philosophus “Philebus” 29f ; also, in one's hands, τὰ π. τοῖς Ἑλληνοταμίαις ὄντα “IG” 12.91.6; ἔχειν παρ᾽ ἑωυτῷ Herodotus Historicus 1.130, etc. ; οὔπω παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ τότ᾽ ἦν λέγειν I had no right to speak then, Menander Comicus “Ἐπιτρέποντες” 98.
__B.II.3 before, in the presence of, ἤειδε π. μνηστῆρσιν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 1.154 ; before a judge, δίκας γίγνεσθαι π. τῷ πολεμάρχῳ “IG” 12.16.9; π. Δαρείῳ κριτῇ Herodotus Historicus 3.160; π. τῷ βασιλέϊ prev. author 4.65; παρὰ δικασταῖς Thucydides Historicus 1.73; εἰς κρίσιν καθιστάναι τινὰ π. τισί Demosthenes Orator 18.13: hence παρ᾽ ἐμοί in my judgement, Herodotus Historicus 1.32, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Trachiniae” 589, Euripides Tragicus “Heraclidae” 881, NT.1Cor.3.19 ; π. τούτῳ μέγα δυνήσεται with him, Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 510e.
__B.II.4 in quoting authors, παρ᾽ Ἐφόρῳ, παρ᾽ Αἰσχίνῃ, π. Θουκυδίδῃ, in Ephorus, etc., Polybius Historicus 9.2.4, Dionysius Halicarnassensis “de Compositione Verborum” 9, 18.
__B.III 4th c.AD(?): Arcadius Grammaticus, ={π} . with genitive, from, καθὰ εἶχον τὰς ἰντολὰς π. τᾷ ἰδίᾳ πόλι “SIG” 559.9 (Megalopolis, 3rd c.BC), compare 558.10 (Ithaca, 3rd c.BC).
__C WITH ACCU Sophocles Tragicus in three main senses,
__C.I beside, near, by,
__C.II along,
__C.III past, beyond.
__C.I beside, near, by:
__C.I.1 with Verbs of coming, going, etc., to the side of, to, ἴτην π. νῆας Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.347, compare 8.220, etc.; βῆ.. π. θῖνα 1.34, compare 327, etc. ; τρέψας πὰρ ποταμόν to the side of.., 21.603, compare 3.187: more frequently of persons, εἶμι παρ᾽ Ἥφαιστον to the chamber of H., 18.143, compare Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 1.285, etc.; ἐσιόντες π. τοὺς φίλους Thucydides Historicus 2.51, etc.; φοιτᾶν π. τὸν Σωκράτη Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 59d ; πέμπειν ἀγγέλους, πρέσβεις π. τινά, Herodotus Historicus 1.141, Thucydides Historicus 1.58, etc.; ἄγειν π. τινά Herodotus Historicus 1.86; καταφυγὴ π. φίλων τινάς Thucydides Historicus 2.17.
__C.I.2 with Verbs of rest, beside, near, by, sometimes with reference to past motion (expressed in such phrases as ἧσο παρ᾽ αὐτὸν ἰοῦσα Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 3.406, compare 11.577), ἔς ῥα θρόνους ἕζοντο παρ᾽ Ἀτρεΐδην Μενέλαον Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 4.51, compare 13.372 ; κεῖται ποταμοῖο παρ᾽ ὄχθας lies stretched beside.., Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.487, compare 12.381 ; παρ᾽ ἔμ᾽ ἵστασο come and stand by me, 11.314, compare 592, 20.49 , etc.; π. πυθμέν᾽ ἐλαίης θῆκαν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 13.122; καταθέτω π. τὰ ἴκρια “IG” 12.94.28 ; κοιμήσαντο π. πρυμνήσια they lay down by.., Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 12.32, compare 3.460; ὁ παρ᾽ ἐμὲ καθήμενος Plato Philosophus “Euthydemus” 271b, compare “Phd.” 89b ; ἐκάθητο π. τὴν πύλην, π. τὴν ὁδόν, LXX.Gen.19.1, NT.Mark.10.46; παρ᾽ αὐτὸν τὸν καλέσαντα κατακείμενος δειπνῆσαι Theophrastus Philosophus “Characteres” 21.2, compare Plato Philosophus “Symposium” 175c; ἐκαθέζετο π. τὸν Λύσιν prev. author “Ly.” 211a, compare “R.” 328c; στὰς παρ᾽ αὐτόν prev. author “Phd.” 116c; τέμενος νεμόμεσθα.. παρ᾽ ὄχθας Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 12.313, compare 6.34, “IG” 12.943.45; τοῦ Εὐρίπου, παρ᾽ ὃν ᾤκει Aeschines Orator 3.90; κατελείφθη π. τὸν νηόν Herodotus Historicus 4.87; τὴν παρ᾽ ἐμὲ ἐοῦσαν δύναμιν prev. author 8.140.ά (variant{ἐμοί})+NT+8th c.BC+; εἶπεν αὐτῷ μένειν παρ᾽ ἑαυτόν Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 1.4.18, compare “An.” 1.9.31, Aristophanes Comicus “Fragmenta” 451, Isaeus Orator 8.16, Alexander Rhetor 248, Demetr.Comedy texts Nov. 1.5, “IG” 22.654.23 (3rd c.BC), Polybius Historicus 3.26.1, 11.14.3, 28.14.3; ἡ π. θάλασσαν Μακεδονία Thucydides Historicus 2.99, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 184 (Lyric poetry), “Tr.” 636 (Lyric poetry); Καρβασυανδῆς π. Καῦνον “IG” 12.204.52; τὸ κουρεῖον τὸ π. τοὺς Ἑρμᾶς Lysias Orator 23.3, compare Andocides Orator 1.62, Isaeus Orator 6.20, 8.35, Aeschines Orator 1.182, 3.88, Lycurgus Orator 112; τᾶς παστάδος τᾶς παρ᾽ Ἀπόλλωνα “IG” 42 (1).109 iii 146 (Epid.) ; παρ᾽ ὄμμα before one's eyes, Euripides Tragicus “Supplices” 484 ; π. πόδας on the spot, Philodemus Gadarensis Epigrammaticus “Ir.” p.78 W., “Rh.” 2.2 Sophocles Tragicus ; immediately thereafter, Polybius Historicus 1.7.5, 1.8.2, al.
__C.I.2.b Doric dialect, Boeotian dialect, and Thess., = above Bacchylides Lyricus 11.2 , at the house of.., with a person, “IG” 7.3171.7 (Orchom. Boeot.), “GDI” 1717 (Delph.) ; παρ᾽ ἁμὲ πολυτίματος ὁ σῖτος Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 759 (Megarian dialect); τοῖς κατοικέντεσσι πὰρ ἀμμέ “IG” 9(2).517.18 (Larissa, 3rd c.BC); τοῖ πὰρ ἀμμὲ πολιτεύματος prev. work13; πεπολιτευκὼρ πὰρ ἁμέ “Schwyzer” 425.5 (Elis, 3rd-2nd c.BC): so in Attic., θέμενος π. γυναῖκας depositing with.., Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 465c.
__C.I.3 with Verbs of striking, wounding, etc., βάλε στῆθος π. μαζόν Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 4.480, etc.; τὸν δ᾽ ἕτερον.. κληῗδα παρ᾽ ὦμον πλῆξε 5.146; τύψε κατὰ κληῗδα παρ᾽ αὐχένα 21.117, compare 4.525, 8.325, etc. ; αἰχμὴ δ᾽ ἐξελύθη παρὰ νείατον ἀνθερεῶνα 5.293, compare 17.310; δησάμενος τελαμῶνι π. σφυρόν prev. work 290.
__C.I.4 with Verbs of placing, examining, etc., side by side with.., ὁ ἔλεγχος π. τὸν ἔλεγχον παραβαλλόμενος Plato Philosophus “Gorgias” 475e, compare “Hp.Mi.” 369c, “Smp.” 214c, “R.” 348a; ἐξέτασον παρ᾽ ἄλληλα τὰ σοὶ κἀμοὶ βεβιωμένα Demosthenes Orator 18.265; ἄλλα παρ᾽ ἄλλατιθέμενα.. τῶν χρωμάτων Aristoteles Philosophus “Meteorologica” 375a24.
__C.I.4.b Geometry texts, παραβάλλειν π. apply an area to (i. e. along) a finite straight line, Euclides Geometra 1.44, Archimedes Geometra “περὶ ἰσορροπιῶν” 2.1; π. τὴν δοθεῖσαν αὐτοῦ γραμμὴν παρατείναντα Plato Philosophus “Meno” 87a ; ἡ εὐθεῖα παρ᾽ ἣν δύνανται αἱ καταγόμεναι τεταγμένως the line to which are applied the squares of the or dinates, etc., Apollonius Biographus Perg. “Con.” 1.11: hence,
__C.I.4.c Arith., παραβάλλειν τι π. τι divide by.. (see. παραβάλλω Aeschylus Tragicus VII. 2); μερίζω τι π. τι Diophantus Mathematicus 4.33 ; ἐπὶ γ π. ί multiply by 3 and divide by 10, “PLond.” 5.1718.2 (6th c.AD).
__C.I.5 Geometry texts, parallel to.., Democritus Epigrammaticus 155, Aristoteles Philosophus “Topica” 158b31, Archimedes Geometra “Sph. Cyl.” 1.12, al.
__C.I.6 metaphorically in Grammars, like, as a parody of.., π. τὸ Σοφόκλειον, π. τὰ ἐν Τεύκρῳ Σοφοκλέους, Scholia Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 1240, “Nu.” 584.
__C.I.6.b Grammars, of words which differ as compared with other words, π. τὸ τοῦ ἔρωτος ὄνομα σμικρὸν παρηγμένον ἐστίν.. τὸ ἥρως Plato Philosophus “Cratylus” 398d, compare 399a, “Lg.” 654a : hence, derived from.., π. τὸ ἔδαφος, δάπεδον, Apollonius Dyscolus Grammaticus “de Pronominibus;” 31.16 ; π. τὸ δρῶ δρᾶμα Scholia Apollonius Rhodius Epicus 2.624; σύγκειται τὸ αὐθέντης π. τὸ εἷναι.. καὶ π. τὸ αὐτός Phrynichus Atticista “Praeparatio Sophistica” p.24 Bacchylides Lyricus
__C.I.7 generally, of Comparison, alongside of, compared with, usually implying superiority, δοκέοντες π. ταῦτα οὐδ᾽ ἂν τοὺς σοφωτάτους ἀνθρώπων Αἰγυπτίους οὐδὲν ἐπεξευρεῖν Herodotus Historicus 2.160, compare 7.20, 103; ἡλίου ἐκλείψεις αἳ πυκνότεραι π. τὰ ἐκ τοῦ πρὶν χρόνου μνημονευόμενα ξυνέβησαν Thucydides Historicus 1.23, compare 4.6; τῶν ἁπάντων ἀπερίοπτοί εἰσι π. τὸ νικᾶν prev. author 1.41; π. τὰ ἄλλα ζῷα ὥσπερ θεοὶ ἄνθρωποι βιοτεύουσι Xenophon Historicus “Memorabilia” 1.4.14; φαίνεται π. τὸ ἀλγεινὸν ἡδὺ καὶ π. τὸ ἡδὺ ἀλγεινὸν ἡ ἡσυχία Plato Philosophus “Respublica” 584a, compare “Phdr.” 236d, “La.” 183c, al.; εὐδαίμων μᾶλλον π. πάντας “BCH” 26.332 (from Halae) ; προετέρει π. πάντας “PSI” 4.422.34 (3rd c.BC): sometimes implying inferiority or defect, ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν βραχύ τι παρ᾽ ἀγγέλους a little lower than the angels, LXX.Psa.8.6 ; μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ ὑστεροῦσι π. τὸν ἥλιον lag one day behind the sun, Geminus Astronomicus 8.19 ; so perhaps παρ᾽ αὐτόν, ὑπὲρ αὐτόν (has passed the ball?) short of him, beyond him, Antiphanes Comicus 234 ; μέγα τοι ἡμέρα παρ᾽ ἡμέραν γιγνομένη γνώμην ἐξ ὀργῆς μεταστῆσαι one day compared with another is important.., a day's delay makes a difference, Antipho Orator 5.72 ; τί γὰρ παρ᾽ ἦμαρ ἡμέρα τέρπειν ἔχει προσθεῖσα κἀναθεῖσα τοῦ γε κατθανεῖ; what joy has one day compared with another to offer, since it only brings us nearer to, or farther from, death (which is neither good nor evil)? Sophocles Tragicus “Ajax” 475 ; ὃς μὲν κρίνει (prefers) ἡμέραν παρ᾽ ἡμέραν, ὃς δὲ κρίνει (approves) πᾶσαν ἡμέραν NT.Rom.14.5.
__C.I.8 with Verbs of estimating, to set at so and so much, hence π. = equivalent to.., ταρβῶ μὴ.. θῆται παρ᾽ οὐδὲν τὰς ἐμὰς ἐπιστολάς set at nought, Euripides Tragicus “Iphigenia Taurica” 732, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 229 (Lyric poetry); παρ᾽ οὐδὲν ἄγειν Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 35 ; π. μικρὸν ἡγεῖσθαι or ποιεῖσθαί τι hold of small account, Isocrates Orator 5.79, Demosthenes Orator 61.51; παρ᾽ ὀλίγον ποιεῖσθαί τινα Xenophon Historicus “Anabasis” 6.6.11 ; so with εἶναι, etc., παρ᾽ οὐδέν ἐστι are as nothing, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Tyrannus” 983, compare “Ant.” 466; παρ᾽ οὐδὲν αὐταῖς ἦν ἂν ὀλλύναι πόσεις Euripides Tragicus “Orestes” 569; οὐ π. μέγα ἔσεσθαι τὸ πταῖσμα Arrianus Historicus “Anabasis” 1.18.6 ; so perhaps π. σμικρὰ κεχώρηκε have turned out of little account, have amounted to little, Herodotus Historicus 1.120.
__C.I.8.b in Accountancy, without a verb, π. τὴν καταλλαγήν on account of κ., “PHib.” 1.100.4 (3rd c.BC).
__C.I.9 of correspondence, ὀφείλειν στατῆρα π. στατῆρα stater for stater (one to each of two creditors), “BCH” 50.214 (Thasos, 5th c.BC) ; πληγὴν π. πληγὴν ἑκάτερον Aristophanes Comicus “Ranae” 643 ; συνεῖναι ἑκατέρῳ ἡμέραν παρ᾽ ἡμέραν stayed day for day with each, Demosthenes Orator 59.46 ; hence of alternation, ποιεῖσθαι ἁγνείας καὶ θυσίας δύο π. δύο, of four priests acting two and two alternately, “BGU” 1198.12 (1st c.BC) ; τοῦ καθημερινοῦ ἢ μίαν π. μίαν (i.e. ἡμέραν) πυρετοῦ quotidian or tertian fever, prev. work 956.3 (3rd c.AD): sometimes without doubling of the Noun, παρ᾽ ἡμέρην, opposed to καθ᾽ ἡμέρην, tertian, opposed to quotidian, Hippocrates Medicus “ἀφορισμοί” 1.12 ; καθ᾽ ἡμέραν, παρ᾽ ἡμέραν, π. δύο, π. τρεῖς every day, every second day, every third (fourth) day, Arrianus Historicus “Epicteti Dissertationes” 2.18.13 ; π. μίαν every second day, Polybius Historicus 3.110.4 ; παρ᾽ ἐνιαυτόν every second year, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Cleomenes” 15 ; παρ᾽ ἔτος year and year about, Aristoteles Philosophus “de Generatione Animalium” 757a7 ; every second year, Pausanias Periegeta 8.15.2 ; π. μέρος by turns (see. μέρος II. 2); ὁ ἀνὰ μέρος παρ᾽ ἓξ μῆνας ὑπὲρ γῆν τε καὶ ὑπὸ γῆν γινόμενος Ἄδωνις Cornutus Philosophus “de Natura Deorum” 28 ; π. μῆνα τρίτον every third month, Aristoteles Philosophus “Historia Animalium” 582b4, compare Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.942e ; but π. τρία ἔτεα probably every fourth year, “IG” 5(2).422 (from Phigalea), compare Arrianus Historicus “Epict.” same place; ἕνα παρ᾽ ἕνα παραλειπτέον every second one, Nicomachus Gerasenus Mathematicus “Arithmetica Introductio” 1.18 ; ἕνα π. δύο (τρεῖς) every third (fourth) one, prev. passage ; παρὰ δ᾽ ἄλλαν ἄλλα μοῖρα διώκει now one now another, Euripides Tragicus “Heraclidae” 611.
__C.I.10 precisely at the moment of, παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀδικήματα flagrante delicto, Demosthenes Orator 18.13, 21.26; ἀποδώσω π. τὸν εὔθυνον τὸ καθῆκον “IG” 12.188.31 ; π. τοιοῦτον καιρόν, π. τὰς χρείας, Demosthenes Orator 20.41,46 ; π. τὰ δεινά in the midst of danger, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Antonius” 63; π. τὴν πρώτην γένεσιν Julianus Imperator “Orationes” 1.10b ; π. τὴν πρώτην (i.e. ἐπίθεσιν) at the first attack, Heliodorus Scriptor Eroticus 9.2; π. γε τὴν πρώτην ὁρμήν Aelianus “De Natura Animalium - Ar.Byzantine Epit.” 14.10.
__C.I.10.b distributively, whether of Time, π. τὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτεα in each complete period of seventy years, Herodotus Historicus 1.32; ἐν ταῖς ὁδοιπορίαις π. στάδια διακόσια.. τοῖς ἑκατὸν σταδίοις διήνεγκαν ἀλλήλων Xenophon Historicus “Oeconomicus” 20.18 ; πὰρ Ϝέτος each year, every year, “Tab.Heracl.” 1.101; π. τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν ἕκαστον “IG” 12(7).5.14 (from Amorgos) ; παρ᾽ ἆμάρ τε καὶ νύκτα day and night, Bacchylides Lyricus “fragment” 7 ; or more generally, πὰρ τὰν ἐλαίαν in respect of each olive plant, “Tab.Heracl.” 1.122 ; παρ᾽ ἡμέραν αἱ ἀμίαι πολὺ ἐπιδήλως αὐξάνονται from day to day, per day, Aristoteles Philosophus “Historia Animalium” 571a21; τὸ παρ᾽ ἑκάστην βάσιν γινόμενον μικρὸν πολὺ γίνεται π. πολλάς prev. author “Pr.” 881b26; ἡ παρ᾽ ἡμέραν χάρις Demosthenes Orator 8.70; τὸ παρ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν ἡδύ Plato Philosophus “Leges” 705a.
__C.I.10.c παρ᾽ ἆμαρ on (this) day, to-day, τὸ μὲν πὰρ ἆμαρ, τὸ δέ.. to-day and to-morrow, Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 11.63 ; but παρ᾽ ἦμαρ to-morrow, Sophocles Tragicus “Oedipus Coloneus” 1455 (Lyric poetry).
__C.I.10.d throughout a period of time, π. τὴν ζόην Herodotus Historicus 7.46; π. τὸν βίον ἅπαντα Plato Philosophus “Leges” 733a; π. πάντα τὸν χρόνον Demosthenes Orator 18.10 ; also more loosely, during, π. τὴν πόσιν while they were drinking, Herodotus Historicus 2.121. ; π. τὸν πότον Aeschines Orator 2.156; π. τὴν κύλικα Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Antonius” 24 ; π. δεῖπνον or π. τὸ δεῖπνον, prev. author 2.737a,674f.
__C.II along, ὄνος παρ᾽ ἄρουραν ἰών Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 11.558; βῆ δὲ θέειν π. τεῖχος 12.352; π. ῥόον Ὠκεανοῖο ᾔομεν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 11.21; ἔπλεον π. τὴν ἤπειρον Herodotus Historicus 7.193; π. πᾶσαν τὴν ὁδόν Isocrates Orator 4.148 ; ὀρθὴν παρ᾽ οἶμον.. τύμβον κατόψει straight along the road, Euripides Tragicus “Alcestis” 835; παρ᾽ ὅλην τὴν φάραγγα Polybius Historicus 10.30.3; παρ᾽ αὐτὴν τὴν χαράδραν παραπορευομένων prev. work 9; for παραβάλλειν π., see above with 1.4b.
__C.II.2 strictly according to, without deviating from, εἶμι π. στάθμην ὀρθὴν ὁδόν Theognis Elegiacus 945, compare Sophocles Tragicus “Fragmenta” 474.5 ; ὠμοί τε δούλοις πάντα καὶ π. στάθμην, i.e. too strict, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 1045 ; π. τὸν λόγον ὃν ἀποφέρουσιν.. ἐπιδείξω I will prove to you strictly according to the accounts which they themselves submit, Demosthenes Orator 27.34.
__C.III past, beyond, παρὰ σκοπιὴν καὶ ἐρινεὸν ἠνεμόεντα.. ἐσσεύοντο Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 22.145, compare Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 3.172, 24.12; βῆ δὲ π. Κρουνούς “hymnus ad Apollinem” 425 ; π. τὴν Βαβυλῶνα παριέναι pass by Babylon, Xenophon Historicus “Institutio Cyri (Cyropaedia)” 5.2.29 ; παρ᾽ αὐτὴν τὴν χύτραν ἄκραν ὁρῶντες looking over the edge of.., Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 390.
__C.III.2 metaphorically, over and above, in addition to, οὐκ ἔστι π. ταῦτ᾽ ἄλλα prev. author “Nu.” 698; π. ταῦτα πάντα ἕτερόν τι Plato Philosophus “Phaedo” 74a, compare “R.” 337d, Demosthenes Orator 18.139, Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 1.5.5 ; ἑκὼν ἐπόνει π. τοὺς ἄλλους more than the others, prev. author “Ages.” 5.3, compare “Mem.” 4.4.1, “Oec.” 20.16; ἃ τῷ ῥαψῳδῷ προσήκει καὶ σκοπεῖσθαι καὶ διακρίνειν π. τοὺς ἄλλους ἀνθρώπους Plato Philosophus “Ion” 539e.
__C.III.3 metaphorically, in excess over, πὰρ δύναμιν beyond one's strength, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 13.787, compare Thucydides Historicus 1.70, Hyperides Orator “pro Lycophrone” 16, Aristoteles Philosophus “Rhetorica ad Alexandrum” 1423b29; π. τὴν δ. prev. author “Po.” 1451b38.
__C.III.4 metaphorically, in transgression or violation of, π. μοῖραν Odyssea Homerus Epicus “Odyssey” 14.509; π. μοῖραν Δίος Alcaeus Lyricus “Supp.” 14.10 ; παρ᾽ αἶσαν, παρὰ δίκαν, Pindarus Lyricus “P.” 8.13, “O.” 2.16, etc.; π. τὸ δίκαιον Thucydides Historicus 5.90, etc. ; π. τὰς σπονδάς, τὸν νόμον, prev. author 1.67, Xenophon Historicus “Historia Graeca (Hellenica)” 1.7.14; π. φύσιν Thucydides Historicus 6.17, compare Plato Philosophus “Leges” 747b ; π. τὴν στήλην probably in “IG” 12.45.20 ; π. καιρόν out of season, Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 8.24, etc. ; π. γνώμαν prev. work 12.10, compare Aeschylus Tragicus “Supplices” 454 ; π. δόξαν, π. τὸ δοκοῦν ἡμῖν, π. λόγον, Thucydides Historicus 3.93, 1.84, Polybius Historicus 2.38.5 ; παρ᾽ ἐλπίδα or ἐλπίδας, Aeschylus Tragicus “Agamemnon” 899, Sophocles Tragicus “Antigone” 392, etc. ; πὰρ μέλος out of tune, Pindarus Lyricus “N.” 7.69; π. τὴν ἀξίαν Thucydides Historicus 7.77, etc. ; π. τὸ εἰωθός, τὸ καθεστηκός, prev. author 4.17, 1.98.
__C.III.5 π. τοσοῦτον ἦλθε κινδύνου, ={παρῆλθε τοσοῦτον κινδύνου}, passed over so much ground within the sphere of danger, i.e. incurred such imminent peril, prev. author 3.49, compare 7.2 ; in such phrases the tmesis was forgotten, and the accusative came to be governed by παρά, which thus came to mean 'by such and such a margin', 'with so much to spare', ἐνίκησαν π. πολύ, ἡσσηθέντες π. πολύ, prev. author 1.29, 2.89, compare Plato Philosophus “Apologia” 36a ; παρὰ δ᾽ ὀλίγον ἀπέφυγες only just, Euripides Tragicus “Iphigenia Taurica” 870 (Lyric poetry); παρ᾽ ὀλίγον ἢ διέφευγον ἢ ἀπώλλυντο Thucydides Historicus 7.71 ; δεινότατον π. πολύ by far, Aristophanes Comicus “Plutus” 445 ; παρ᾽ ὅσον quatenus, Lucianus Sophista “Nec.” 17, etc. ; π. δύο ψήφους ἀπέφυγε by two votes, Hyperides Orator “pro Euxenippo” 28, compare Demosthenes Orator 23.205; π. τέτταρας ψήφους μετέσχε τῆς πόλεως Isaeus Orator 3.37 ; π. τοσοῦτον ἐγένετο αὐτῷ μὴ περιπεσεῖν by so much (= little) he missed falling in with.., Thucydides Historicus 8.33; π. πέντε ναῦς πλέον ἀνδρὶ ἑκάστῳ ἢ τρεῖς ὀβολοὶ ὡμολογήθησαν prev. work 29 ; οὐ π. μικρὸν ἐποίησαν they made no little difference, Isocrates Orator 4.59.
__C.III.5.b in phrases like{π. τοσοῦτον ἦλθε κινδύνου, τοσοῦτον} was sometimes understood of the interval from danger, etc., and παρά came to mean 'by so much short of' (τὸ π. μικρὸν ὥσπερ οὐδὲν ἀπέχειν δοκεῖ Aristoteles Philosophus “Physica” 197a29) , within such and such a distance of, so near to, τὴν Ἠϊόνα π. νύκτα ἐγένετο (i.e. αὐτῷ) λαβεῖν he was within one night of taking Euripides Tragicus, Thucydides Historicus 4.106 ; π. μικρὸν ἦλθον ἀποθανεῖν I came within a little of.., Isocrates Orator 19.22, compare Polybius Historicus 1.43.7, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Caesar” 39 ; παρ᾽ ἐλάχιστον ἦλθε.. ἀφελέσθαι was within an ace of taking away, Thucydides Historicus 8.76 ; παρ᾽ οὐδὲν μὲν ἦλθον ἀποκτεῖναι (were within a mere nothing, within an ace of killing him), ἐξεκήρυξαν δ᾽ ἐκ πόλεως Aeschines Orator 3.258, compare Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Pyrrhus” 14, “Alex.” 62 ; π. τοσοῦτον ἦλθε διαφυγεῖν so near he came to escaping, Lucianus Sophista “Cat.” 4; παρὰ ἓν πάλαισμα ἔδραμε νικᾶν Ὀλυμπιάδα Herodotus Historicus 9.33; παρ᾽ οὐδὲν ἐλθόντες τοῦ ἀποβαλεῖν Polybius Historicus 1.45.14, compare 2.55.4, Diodorus Siculus Historicus 17.42: hence without ἐγένετο or ἐλθεῖν, π. μίαν μονάδα (less) by one, i.e. less one, Nicomachus Gerasenus Mathematicus “Arithmetica Introductio” 1.8 ; τεσσαράκοντα π. μίαν, = 39, NT.2Cor.11.24 ; παρ᾽ ἕνα τοσοῦτοι the same number less one, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Publicola” 9 ; σύ μοι παρ᾽ ἕνα ἥκεις ἄγων you have brought me one too few, Lucianus Sophista “Cat.” 4; δύναται π. δύο συλλαβὰς εἶναι τὸ καταληκτόν Hephaestio Grammaticus 4.2 ; τὰ ὁλοκόττινα ηὑρέθησαν π. ἑπτὰ κεράτια seven carats short, PMasp. 70.2 (6th c.AD) ; πάντες παρ᾽ ἕνα, πάντες παρ᾽ ὀλίγους, all save one (a few), Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus “Cat.Mi.” 20, “Ant.” 5; ἔτη δύο π. ἡμέρας δύο “IG” 5(1).801 (from Laconia) ; of one Μάρκος, θηρίον εἶ π. γράμμα you are a bear (ἄρκος) all but a letter, “Anthologia Graeca” 11.231 (Ammianus Epigrammaticus) ; ὡς π. τι καὶ τὰς ὄψεις ἀφανίσαι so that he all but (literal less something) lost his sight, Vettius Valens Astrologus 228.6 ; π. τι βυθίζεσθαι variant in NT.Luke.5.7 ; τὸ π. τοῦτο the figure less that, i.e. the remainder or difference, PTeb. 99.10 (2nd c.BC),compare “POxy.” 264.4 (1st c.AD), “PAmh.” 2.148.5 (5th c.AD) ; hence of any difference whether of excess or defect, οὐδὲν π. τοῦτο ποιούμενοι τοὺς.. Λευκανούς τε καὶ τοὺς.. Σαυνίτας making no difference between.., 1st cStrabo Geographus 6.1.3, compare 14.5.11, Plutarchus Biographus et Philosophus 2.24c.
__C.III.6 hence of the margin by which anything increases or decreases, and so of the cause according to which anything comes into existence or varies, τὸ εὖ π. μικρὸν διὰ πολλῶν ἀριθμῶν γίνεται Polyclitus Philosophus 2 (compare μικρός III. 5 c) ; διαφέρει π. τὰς τῶν παθημάτων ἐναντιώσεις according to.., Aristoteles Philosophus “Historia Animalium” 486b5; μεταπίπτει π. τὰ κλίματα Geminus Astronomicus 5.29, compare 11.5, al. ; π. τὰ πράγματα conjecture in Apollodorus Carystius Comicus 11.
__C.III.7 more generally of the margin by which an event occurs, i.e. of the necessary and sufficient cause or motive (τὸ μὴ π. τοῦτο γίνεσθαι τότε λέγομεν, ὅταν ἀναιρεθέντος τούτου μηδὲν ἧττον περαίνηται ὁ συλλογισμός Aristoteles Philosophus “Analytica Priora” 65b6, compare 48a24, al.), κεινὰν π. δίαιταν just for the sake of unsatisfying food, Pindarus Lyricus “O.” 2.65 ; ἕκαστος οὐ π. τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀμέλειαν οἴεται βλάψειν each thinks that his own negligence will not suffice to cause injury, Thucydides Historicus 1.141, compare Isocrates Orator 3.48 ; π. τὴν αὑτοῦ ἁμαρτίαν all through his own fault, Antipho Orator 3.4.5, compare Isocrates Orator 6.52, Demosthenes Orator 4.11, 18.232 ; πολλὰ.. ἐστιν αἴτια τούτων, καὶ οὐ παρ᾽ ἓν οὐδὲ δύ᾽ εἰς τοῦτο τὰ πράγματ᾽ ἀφῖκται not from one or two causes only, prev. author 9.2 ; οὐ π. τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστι it does not follow that it is not.., NT.1Cor.12.15 ; π. τὸ τὴν ἀρίθμησιν ποιήσασθαι ἐξ ἑτοίμου τοὺς ἐργώνας οὐκ ὀλίγα χρήματα περιεποίησε τῇ πόλει by the simple fact of prompt payment, “IPE” 12.32 B 35 (Olbia, 3rd c.BC) ; οὐδὲν ἂν παρ᾽ ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο τούτων Lycurgus Orator 63, compare Polybius Historicus 3.103.2, 18.28.6, al. ; οὐδεὶς παρ᾽ ἑαυτόν ἐστι βασιλεύς thanks to himself alone, Aristeas 224; παρ᾽ αὑτὸν ἀτυχεῖ Arrianus Historicus “Epicteti Dissertationes” 3.24.2, compare Philodemus Gadarensis Epigrammaticus “Rh.” 2.16 Sophocles Tragicus; παρ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἡ τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀπόστασις Hierocles Platonicus Philosophus “in Carmen Aureum - FPG” 25p.477M. ; εἶναι π. τοῦτο σωτηρίαν τε πόλει καὶ τοὐναντίον, i.e. on this depends.., Plato Philosophus “Leges” 715d, compare Xenophon Historicus “de Equitum magistro” 1.5, Dio Cassius Historicus “fragment” 36.5; π. μίαν ἡμέραν καὶ ἓν πρᾶγμα καὶ ἀπόλλυται προκοπὴ καὶ σῴζεται Epictetus Philosophus “Enchiridion” 51.2 ; π. τὸ Ἕλληνά με εἶναι just because I am a Greek, “UPZ” 7.13 (2nd c.BC) ; π. τὸ ἀγαπᾶν αὐτὸν αὐτήν LXX.Gen.29.20, cf. LXX.Exo.14.11 ; later more loosely, because of.., Philodemus Gadarensis Epigrammaticus “Rh.” 1.158 Sophocles Tragicus, Geminus Astronomicus 6.24, etc. ; οὐδὲν π. σὲ γέγονε it is no fault of yours, “PRyl.” 243.6 (2nd c.AD),compare “POxy.” 1420.7 (2nd c.AD).
__C.III.8 of a limit of possibility, εἴπερ ἐνεδέχετο π. τοὺς παρόντας καιρούς Demosthenes Orator 18.239 ; πεῖσαι τό γε παρ᾽ αὑτόν to persuade (the judges) so far as in you lies, Arrianus Historicus “Epicteti Dissertationes” 2.2.20 ; οἴμωζε παρ᾽ ἐμέ as far as I am concerned, for all I care, Aristophanes Comicus “Aves” 846.
__D POSITION: παρά may follow its substantive in all three cases, but then becomes by anastrophe πάρα: when the ultima is elided, the practice varies, τῇσι παρ᾽ Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 18.400; but Ἡφαίστοιο πάρ᾽ prev. work 191.
__E παρά absolutely, as adverb., near, together, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.611, al., Euripides Tragicus “Iphigenia Aulidensis” 201 (Lyric poetry).
__F πάρα (with anastrophe) stands for πάρεστι and πάρεισι, Ilias Homerus Epicus “Illiad” 1.174, Hesiodus Epicus “Opera et Dies” 454, Aeschylus Tragicus “Persae” 167, Herodotus Historicus 1.42, al., Sophocles Tragicus “Electra” 285, Aristophanes Comicus “Acharnenses” 862, etc.
__G IN COMPOSITION (joined with other words),
__G.I alongside of, beside, of rest, παράκειμαι, παράλληλοι, παρέζομαι, πάρειμι (εἰμί), παρίστημ; of motion, παραπλέω, πάρειμι (εἶμι).
__G.II to the side of, to, παραδίδωμι, παρέχω.
__G.III to one side of, by, past, παρέρχομαι, παροίχομαι, παραπέμπω, παρακμάζω, παρατρέχω.
__G.IV metaphorically,
__G.IV.1 aside or beyond, i.e. amiss, wrong, παραβαίνω, παράγω, παροράω, παρορκέω, παρακούω, παραγιγνώσκω.
__G.IV.2 of comparison, as in παραβάλλω, παρατίθημι.
__G.IV.3 of alteration or change, as in παραλλάσσω, παραπείθω, παραπλάσσω, παρατεκταίνω, παραυδάω, παράφημι.
__G.IV.4 of a side-issue, παραπόλλυμι. (Cogn. with Gothic faúr 'along', Latin por-.)

Synoniemen en afgeleide woorden

Grieks παραβαίνω G3845 "overtreden, schenden"; Grieks παραβάλλω G3846 "vergelijken"; Grieks παραβιάζομαι G3849 "geweld uitoefenen, dwingen"; Grieks παραβουλεύομαι G3851 "alles op het spel zetten"; Grieks παραγγέλλω G3853 "langs de rij, langs de gelederen, afkondigen, bekend maken, bevelen, opwekken"; Grieks παραγίνομαι G3854 "aanwezig zijn, naderbij komen, naderen"; Grieks παράγω G3855 "passeren"; Grieks παραδειγματίζω G3856 "voorbeeld stellen (als)"; Grieks παραδέχομαι G3858 "ontvangen, opnemen, op zich nemen"; Grieks παραδιατριβή G3859 "zinloze bezigheid, nutteloze bezigheid"; Grieks παραδίδωμι G3860 "in handen geven"; Grieks παράδοξος G3861 "onverwacht, ongewoon, ongelooflijk, zonderling"; Grieks παραζηλόω G3863 "stemmen tot, uitlokken, prikkelen"; Grieks παραθαλάσσιος G3864 "bij de zee, aan de zee, aan de kust"; Grieks παραθεωρέω G3865 "vergelijken, verwaarlozen"; Grieks παραινέω G3867 "aansporen, vermanen"; Grieks παραιτέομαι G3868 "naast zich vragen, smeken bij iemand te zijn"; Grieks παρακαθίζω G3869 "zitten naast"; Grieks παρακαλέω G3870 "ontbieden, toespreken, zich richten tot"; Grieks παρακαλύπτω G3871 "bedekken, omhullen, verbergen"; Grieks παρακαταθήκη G3872 "deposito"; Grieks παράκειμαι G3873 "liggen naast, vlakbij zijn, aanwezig zijn, bij de hand zijn"; Grieks παρακολουθέω G3877 "navolgen, meegaan met"; Grieks παρακούω G3878 "er nog bij horen"; Grieks παρακύπτω G3879 "bukken"; Grieks παραλαμβάνω G3880 "erbij nemen, bij zich opnemen, metgezel, compagnon"; Grieks παραλέγομαι G3881 "voorbij varen, langs varen"; Grieks παράλιος G3882 "zeekust"; Grieks παραλλαγή G3883 "verandering, afwisseling"; Grieks παραλογίζομαι G3884 "zich verrekenen, bedriegen, misleiden"; Grieks παραλύω G3886 "losmaken, ontbinden, verlammen, verzwakken"; Grieks παραμένω G3887 "blijven naast, overleven"; Grieks παραμυθέομαι G3888 "bemoedigen, vertroosten"; Grieks παρανομέω G3891 "wet overtreden"; Grieks παραπικραίνω G3893 "prikkelen, verbitteren"; Grieks παραπίπτω G3895 "afwijken van de rechte weg, zich afwenden, zwerven"; Grieks παραπλέω G3896 "voorbijvaren"; Grieks παραπλήσιον G3897 "vlak bij, bijna tot aan"; Grieks παραπορεύομαι G3899 "voorbij gaan, langs iets heen gaan"; Grieks παραῤῥυέω G3901 "voorbijstromen, langs vloeien, afdrijven, afglijden"; Grieks παράσημος G3902 "vals"; Grieks παρασκευάζω G3903 "gereed maken, voorbereiden"; Grieks παρατείνω G3905 "uitstrekken, rekken"; Grieks παρατηρέω G3906 "volhardend beschouwen, zorgvuldig waarnemen, waarnemen, observeren met de ogen"; Grieks παρατίθημι G3908 "neerzetten voor, bij, naast"; Grieks παρατυγχάνω G3909 "toevallig aanwezig zijn, toevallig zich voordoen"; Grieks παραυτίκα G3910 "dadelijk, ogenblikkelijk"; Grieks παραφέρω G3911 "meeslepen, bij iemand brengen"; Grieks παραφρονέω G3912 "buiten zichzelf zijn, buiten zinnen zijn, krankzinnig zijn"; Grieks παραχειμάζω G3914 "overwinteren"; Grieks παραχρῆμα G3916 "dadelijk, direct, op staande voet, onmiddellijk"; Grieks πάρειμι G3918 "aangekomen zijn, aanwezig zijn"; Grieks παρεισάγω G3919 "verderfelijke leringen invoeren"; Grieks παρεισδύνω G3921 "heimelijk binnenkomen, stiekem binnensluipen"; Grieks παρεισέρχομαι G3922 "heimelijk binnenkomen, stiekem binnensluipen, bovendien, erbij binnenkomen"; Grieks παρεισφέρω G3923 "erbij binnen brengen, geven"; Grieks παρεκτός G3924 "behalve, bovendien"; Grieks παρεμβολή G3925 "kamperen, legeren (zich)"; Grieks παρενοχλέω G3926 "moeilijkheden veroorzaken, lastig vallen"; Grieks παρεπίδημος G3927 "vreemdeling, allochtoon"; Grieks παρέρχομαι G3928 "voorbijgaan, langs iets gaan"; Grieks παρέχω G3930 "aanreiken, verschaffen, tonen, opleveren, beschikbaar stellen"; Grieks παρηγορία G3931 "toespreken, toespraak"; Grieks παρίημι G3935 "voorbij laten gaan, loslaten, ontspannen, laten gaan"; Grieks παρίστημι G3936 "aanbieden"; Grieks Παρμενᾶς G3937 "Parmenas"; Grieks πάροδος G3938 "voorbijgaan"; Grieks παροικέω G3939 "wonen bij of naast iemand"; Grieks πάροικος G3941 "wonende naast of bij"; Grieks παροιμία G3942 "gemeenplaats, spreekwoord"; Grieks πάροινος G3943 "dronken"; Grieks παροίχομαι G3944 "voorbijgaan"; Grieks παρόμοιος G3946 "bijna gelijk, soortgelijk"; Grieks παροξύνω G3947 "scherp maken, scherpen, prikkelen, aansporen, aanzetten"; Grieks παροργίζω G3949 "boos maken, vertoornen, verbitteren, prikkelen"; Grieks παροτρύνω G3951 "aansporen, opruien"; Grieks παροψίς G3953 "bijschotel met fijne gerechten";

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